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- Volume 43, Issue 2, 2015
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 43, Issue 2, 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2, 2015
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp i –iv (2015)More Less
Security, Annette Seegers points out, has to be defined; it must be given content or substance. How security is defined is in many cases the result of a dualistic process, an interplay, between a debate on security by academia in the scholarly environment and an executive function of government in the policy process. In the definition of security, both the academic and the policy processes have to contend with two variables: domestic or internal vulnerabilities and threats from the outside, dangers lurking in the outer environment. This interplay between both perceptions and reality about the internal and the external environment and between vulnerabilities and threats is at the heart of how both the scholarly community and governments go about providing content to the idea of security. Security is therefore a deeply subjective process; a process, to quote Colin S Gray, "... influence by personality and mood swing chemistry and consideration or circumstances, but scarcely at all reliably by empirical data".
Author Andreas Bruvik WestbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 1 –38 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1122More Less
Ten years ago, Somalia suffered its first outbreak of piracy. In early 2005, pirates began appearing hundreds of nautical miles out at sea, attacking and hijacking vessels off the shores of central Somalia. However, the circumstances of this outbreak remain poorly understood. Why did pirate groups originate from an area with a negligible history of maritime predation? The present study explored the environment within which Somalia's first outbreak of piracy occurred, and offers a critical re-think of its origins. Drawing on the author's own extensive fieldwork as well as contemporary reports, the study explored how pirate ventures were launched after the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004 had obliterated the coastal economy. The tsunami coincided with the eruption of a deadly and highly destabilising conflict, unprecedented for a coastal area that had remained relatively peaceful since the state collapse in 1991. The tsunami and the establishment of the South Mudug piracy model in Harardhere and Hobyo in 2005 laid the foundation for a decade of ransom piracy.
Theoretical approaches in international relations : the South African military as a foreign policy instrumentSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 39 –64 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1123More Less
The utility of theoretical approaches in international relations can be found in the fact that such approaches provide 'lenses' that can be applied to enhance our understanding of the social dynamics of the world we live in. Theoretical approaches are also instrumental in shaping perceptions of what matters in international politics as a social activity. At least indirectly, such approaches inform the choices made by decision-makers on foreign policy and related defence planning. The aim of this article is to revisit those theoretical approaches in international relations that underlie security studies, and to evaluate the relevance of the approaches with regard to a scholarly understanding of militaries and specifically their roles and functions in a foreign policy context. The latter pertains to militaries in general but also to the South African military in particular regarding its role and function as a foreign policy instrument of the South African government.
Author Emmanuel OjoSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 65 –78 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1124More Less
The basic thrust of this article is an in-depth analysis of the established proposition in the existing literature on civilâ??military relations (CMR) that the military or instrumentality of force is a sine qua non to the formation and consolidation of the state. From that premise, the article considers the views of the founding fathers of CMR and with historical facts lend credence to that proposition. On the other hand, the article emphasises the fact that force and brute force alone is not sufficient to attain national integration. The study on which this article reports, surveyed stages of state evolution and inferred that force and nation building are in dialectical opposition, whereas consensus and cooperation are required more than force in the process of nationhood. The article infers that in this 21st century, even after attaining nationhood, the state is still in need of very strong armed forces because of the challenges of globalisation, which include terrorism and territorial expansion by neighbouring and far-away states.
Author Liliane KlausSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 79 –111 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1125More Less
This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military unethical culture in contaminated hierarchical organisations will be proposed, while a number of hypotheses on the institution's functioning will be provided. Differently from private companies' theoretical bias, the main suggested approach implies the initial establishment of a strong, transactional-based tone at the top as the main tool to fight military corruption. As a further step, after the corrupt culture has been neutralised, transactional leadership based on ethics could be slowly transformed into gentler versions of transformational style, but never letting the main fear of the harshest punishment evanesce. In summary, by showing that unethical leadership will necessarily pave the way for misconduct in traditional military organisations, we propose a cannonball strategy, based on a punishment and reward system, to reinforce integrity instead of gentler or charismatic leadership styles.
Author Gavin CawthraSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 112 –132 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1126More Less
From the mid-1970s until the onset of negotiations to end apartheid in 1990, escalating military conflict in the Southern African region was accompanied by a steady increase of conscription dependent on the white male population in South Africa. This was compounded by a process of militarisation in the white community, under the apartheid regime's 'total national security strategy'. In turn, this provoked a counter-reaction in the form a movement of resistance to conscription and more generally to the various internal and external conflicts. Resistance was initially led by exiled self-styled 'war resisters' who set up a number of support organisations. After some political contestation, one such organisation, the Committee on South African War Resistance (COSAWR) emerged as the leading force and aligned itself openly with the African National Congress (ANC). This paper is the first academic contribution to focus on COSAWR and touches on its legacy in terms of its influence on the ANC and the policy frameworks it helped establish for post-apartheid security policy.
Author Hendrik SnydersSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 133 –150 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1127More Less
Due to their centrality in war communications, carrier pigeons, lofts and pigeon handlers were legitimate targets for enemy forces during the First World War (1914-18). As a result of the multi-faceted nature and conflicting interests associated with the post-war debate on appropriate ways of memorialising the war dead (humans), the contribution the animals was largely excluded from the discussions and rarely considered. Belgian and French pigeon fanciers in particular, who as moral witnesses to the slaughter of their birds and brethren, were the exception. They took action to supplement the military and quasi-military, as well as informal recognition extended to war pigeons and their handlers, by erecting official monuments to honour their war dead. Responding to current debates that question animal memorialisation in general, this article, which is largely based on contemporary news reports, reports on an investigation of the early war pigeon memorials, their nature, form symbolism and meaning for the affected community within the context of animal and war memorialisation generally.
Disparity : threat or opportunity to distance education throughput at the South African Military AcademySource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 151 –173 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1128More Less
Improved student throughput remains on the South African Higher Education (HE) priority list. To achieve greater throughput, all institutions of higher learning need to contribute. The South African Military Academy offers distance education (DE) programmes to employees of the South African Department of Defence (DoD). Its distance education (DE) programme, earmarked to become the main HE provider to the DoD, compared to its residential programmes, displays poor throughput. Poor DE throughput contradicts recent advances in educational technologies which provide a range of mitigation and support opportunities through the creation of learning spaces that mediate successful student learning anytime anywhere. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on firstly the disparate profile of Military Academy DE students, and secondly, their disparate access to learning technologies in their working and learning spaces. A survey among DE undergraduates and DE lecturers revealed disparity among respective DE students' HE-related demographics, and disparity in their access to learning technologies (LT). Resolving disparity in access to LT can mitigate demographic disparity to promote graduate throughput.
Author Roland De VriesSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 174 –186 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1129More Less
This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and deployment of doctrine for mobile warfare during the 23-year long South African Border War.
The author answers a simple 'yes', to the question raised whether the military doctrine the South African Defence Force (SADF) had devised during the Border War had served its purpose. He furthermore emphasises that significant lessons can be learned from the way the SADF had fought its military campaigns, a statement borne out by various authoritative publications recently circulated.
Author Tobie BeukesSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 187 –198 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1130More Less
- Making a killing: The explosive story of a hired gun in Iraq, J. Ashcroft
- Escape from Baghdad, J. Ashcroft
- To be a friend is fatal: The fight to save the Iraqis America left behind, K.W. Johnson
The three books discussed here can all be classified as memoirs or even as auto-ethnographies. The two authors relate how they experienced the recent armed conflict in Iraq. The narratives of both authors include detailed accounts of the extraordinary efforts they made to help Iraqi friends leave the country. Although Ashcroft and Johnson view the war from two very different perspectives, their narratives complement each other and can be read together profitably. Researchers and scholars with a focus on contemporary armed conflict should nevertheless find them well worth reading. This review explains why.
Author Deon FourieSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 199 –203 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1131More Less
Surprisingly, in a country so involved in the twentieth-century's major wars, with few exceptions, South African professional historians have for decades turned their backs on writing about the armed forces. It seemed that for the Afrikaner historians, the World Wars and the Union Defence Force were 'English' with only the Anglo-Boer War worthy of attention. The Anglophone historians, for their part, seemed to think that to show an interest in the armed forces would be to align themselves with Afrikaner nationalism and with apartheid. All too often, when professionals who ignore military studies become interested in writing their superficial knowledge is reflected in their approach to writing about military subjects.
Battle on the Lomba, 1987 - The Day a South African Armoured Battalion shattered Angola's Last Mechanised Offensive: A Crew Commander's Account, David Mannall : review articleSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 204 –207 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1132More Less
Writing about the Namibian Border War and South African involvement in the Angolan Civil War is difficult. Many South Africans have been conscripted or willingly served in the military at the time and find it difficult to distance themselves from their own experiences and their personal involvement in many of the operations that were conducted by the South African military. The issue is also clouded by the current South African government's association with what happened on the other side of the hill and, more specifically, their support for the winning narrative of the Cuban-Angolan forces. Many previous South African Defence Force (SADF) soldiers are also facing the wounds of post-traumatic stress because of their exposure to the battlefield experiences of the war. It is very often difficult to navigate between perceptions and reality and to find the truth in the debate about who won the so-called Battle for Cuito Cuanavale.
Author Evert JordaanSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 208 –215 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1133More Less
Recce: Small team missions behind enemy lines is an autobiography by Colonel (retired) Koos Stadler. The book mainly covers his career as a Special Forces officer and reconnaissance soldier during South Africa's so-called Border War in Namibia (formerly South West Africa) and Angola, and his involvement in operations against the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) and its military wing, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). It also covers operations against the African National Congress (ANC) and Angolan forces.
Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace?, C.S. Cheng and D. Zaum : review articleAuthor Seun BamideleSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 216 –217 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-2-1134More Less
Corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding: Selling the peace? is a veritable gold mine. Its organisation is intelligent and coherent, and its range and coverage are appropriately encyclopaedic. This volume deals with the theoretical issues around the concepts of corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding. It analyses the effect of corruption in post-conflict times and peacebuilding on the basis of a particular conceptual framework. Although this conceptual framework serves as the basis of this book, it presents many other theories and empirical evidence to illuminate these complex topics and also draws from every relevant discipline related to the issue of corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding. In this regard, the volume provides numerous examples by citing cases from different countries.