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- Volume 34, Issue Issue, 2006
Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies - Volume 34, Issue Issue-2/3, 2006
Volumes & issues
Volume 34, Issue Issue-2/3, 2006
A letter from 'the other side of silence' : Dludlushe Sondzaba and the Trappist mission in East GriqualandAuthor Michael GreenSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 182 –200 (2006)More Less
This paper relates to my study of the transformation of Mariannhill Monastery from a house of the Trappist Order into the Congregation of Mariannhill Missions. It is a close reading of a letter written in 1908 by one Dludlushe Sondzaba to Donald Strachan in Umzimkulu, complaining about the encroachment of the Trappist mission of Lourdes in East Griqualand upon his land. In it, I analyse the historical and metaphorical terms of his complaint, going into a detailed account of the material circumstances of the time and how Dludlushe Sondzaba represented these in terms of prevalent tropes concerning missions. I concentrate in particular on the material production of the letter, especially its translation and transcription by another hand; many clues as to what is at stake in the letter are related to my attempts at identifying who the actual writer of the letter was. Amongst the themes engaged are those of Dludlushe's son's alliance with the Catholics (against his own Methodist affiliations), the national (British versus German) allegiances he invokes, and, particularly, his complaint about the way the sound of the mission's bells offended him. I used this last point, which led to the contested place of bells in Trappist practices, as a way into the tensions surrounding Mariannhill's interpretation of the Trappist Statutes (particularly the strict observance of silence) in relation to their ever-increasing missionary interests (forbidden by the Trappist Statutes).
Globalising and Christianising racial segregation : South African debates in The International Review of Missions, 1912-1934Author Greg CuthbertsonSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 201 –227 (2006)More Less
This article examines the constructions of South African racial segregation in the pages of The International Review of Missions (IRM) between 1912 and 1934, from the journal's inception to the important visit to South Africa of John R. Mott, the founder of the World Missionary Conference of 1910. It focuses on the various contemporary social issues which exercised the Edinburgh Conference and were debated in the Review, including Ethiopianism, the South African Native Affairs Commission, the relationship between Christianity and Islam in the early decades of the twentieth century, the racialisation of South African society during the industrial unrest of the 1920s, the vicissitudes of mission and African education, the legislated segregation in the notorious Natives Bills of 1926 and concomitant African protest. It draws on the growing historiography of mission in global and British imperial perspective which reconfigures South African mission in trans-national terms, away from conventional nation-centric approaches. The paper follows the narratives and discourses of IRM entries on South Africa, especially those about trusteeship, permutations of segregation and religious separatism, and reads them against the grain of both imperial and post-colonial theories of mission in an attempt to develop a wider conception of the missionary enterprise and its ambiguous relationship to nationalism and colonialism through intersecting circuits of Christian knowledge. It proposes that the IRM provided a network of mission impulses which reverberated around the world, sending South African signals to the British metropole at the same time as receiving signals from the colonial world in Africa, Asia and the Americas. The argument is also that South Africa served as a colonial 'laboratory' of racial segregation, sponsored mainly by 'liberal' Christianity, which influenced cultural flows from South Africa to Britain, radiating outward to India, China and Africa, and vice versa, thus influencing global exchanges - religious, cultural and socio-political - throughout the 'Protestant Atlantic'.
Missionary ecclesiology and its Scottish legacy in Nigeria : a case study of the Presbyterian Church of NigeriaSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 228 –248 (2006)More Less
This article revisits the (Scottish) Presbyterian missionary enterprise in Nigeria and the effect of ethnocentrism that has become the clog in the wheel of almost all its missionary endeavours. Rooted in the belief that the church has a divine mandate to be God's agent in healing the nations, the overall intent of this paper is to encourage the Presbyterian Church of Nigeria (PCN) to be a faithful and an effective agent of healing and true reconciliation. It is argued that only a radical missional response to the present situation can prevent the church from dissipating its energy on what will amount to a mere tinkering of the tail of this monster that has brought much misery both in the sacred and secular spheres of life.
Author Simanga R. KumaloSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 249 –266 (2006)More Less
This article reflects on the 'Journey to the New Land' (JNL) programme, an initiative aimed at transforming the Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA) for mission in a democratic South Africa. It looks at the aims, content, implementation, failures and successes of the programme. The central question that is addressed by the paper is the ability of the JNL programme as an agency of mission to bring social and ecclesiological change to an essentially colonial Methodism, despite its links with the political dissent in the apartheid era. First, the background to the JNL programme is given; second the process leading to the convocation that established it, third the aims of the JNL process and their implementation and finally the impact of the programme and the conclusion. The research was conducted by means of a survey and interviews.
Source: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 267 –284 (2006)More Less
Qualitative, ethno-nursing research was conducted to investigate the health-seeking behaviours of the members of the Africa Gospel Church in Francistown, Botswana. Semi-structured interviews involving church leaders and congregants were conducted. The purpose was to obtain data on the informants' health-seeking behaviours and the underlying religious beliefs, prescriptions and practices. The research findings revealed denominational authority over the lifestyle, health-seeking behaviours and the health care practices of the church members. The congregants seek health care from the priests and prophets. The western scientific health care services are utilised selectively provided that permission is obtained from a priest and cleansing rituals are performed. There is a potential for collaborating with the church to enhance the congregants' access to primary health care. This can be achieved by utilising the existing church structures and home-based care practices, and by providing training especially to the priests and lay care givers. The social control exercised by the church supports a healthy lifestyle and various health care practices can be incorporated into a culturally congruent nursing care plan. It would be necessary to negotiate changes to potentially harmful health care prescriptions and practices.
Author Clifton ClarkeSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 285 –309 (2006)More Less
For many years, Africans have embraced a Christ who was a stranger to their worldview and culture; a Christ more reflective of western epistemology than that of the Christ encountered through the Scriptures. Today it is widely accepted that all theology (Christology) is contextual and therefore arises out of the synergy between culture, Christian tradition, and Scripture. Our knowledge of Christ is therefore something that is not static or detached from everyday life but dynamic and immanent. A true assessment of Christ in Africa must take us to the wellsprings of African orality where Christ is seen and experienced at the grassroots of Christian experience. This article explores the way Christ is encountered and appropriated among Akan African Indigenous Churches (AICs) in Ghana. Drawing upon a nationwide Christological survey it explores the sources that adherents of AICs draw upon in shaping their knowledge and understanding of who Jesus is to them. It further examines how their appropriation of Christ aids them in the quest for life and wholeness in what is very often a world of poverty, disease, and conflict.
Author Philippe DenisSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 310 –323 (2006)More Less
The paper discusses the state of traditional African religion in post-apartheid South Africa. It argues that since the coming of democracy this form of religion has occupied a more important position in civil society than ever before. The new political situation has created a context that is eminently favourable to the expansion of traditional African religion. This happens in several ways. First, as an essential element of indigenous knowledge systems, it is recognised as a field of scientific research. Second, various steps are taken, among health practitioners and in Parliament, to give traditional healers formal recognition. Third, in the Christian churches more and more theologians openly advocate a dialogue with African traditional religion. Fourth, in various parts of the country, in KwaZulu-Natal and in the Eastern Cape in particular, groups of women vigorously promote the renewal of virginity testing, as a way of combating the spread of HIV / AIDS. In the new South Africa, African traditional religion has become more visible, but it is also changing. To gain recognition it has to fulfil a variety of new legal, social and cultural requirements.
Source: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 324 –337 (2006)More Less
The time for polarisation and competition among different forms of African theologizing is over. African Theology, Black Theology and the theological articulation of the AICs should be conceived as the three sides of an equilateral triangle. This does not mean a fusing of the three theological 'streams', nor a simple assimilation of one into the other. Instead, theologians in Africa should seek common ground to foster a new inclusive discourse, especially in relation to mission. For this to take place the historical background of each stream needs to be taken into account, and all three should be seen as valid forms of 'local theology' in Africa. Areas of complentarity that need attention are liberation, ecclesiology and Christology. A missiology of self-transcendence is needed within each of these streams if they are to grow in complementarity.
Author Louise KretzschmarSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 338 –361 (2006)More Less
This paper begins by defining key terms such as Christian leadership, Christian spirituality and spiritual formation and it focuses on the importance of spiritual formation for the development of leaders who are able to make an insightful, prophetic and constructive contribution to both church and society, especially in an African and South African context. The importance of this subject for Christian leaders in churches, mission organisations, para-church groups, business, government and nongovernmental organisations is obvious. I argue that without spiritual formation one cannot speak of Christ-like leadership, but only the promotion of personal or group self-interest lightly masked by a veneer of religious observance. Spiritual formation is indispensable for Christian leaders first because it results in a wider vision of reality and a deepened engagement with society. Second, it enables leaders to live the spiritual and moral vision of the Christian gospel. Third, it helps them to avoid moral and other pitfalls. Fourth, it helps leaders to open the gate to truth, for example, within psychological and business management studies of leadership. Finally, spiritual formation enables leaders increasingly to discern good and evil in the world and to reflect on their own ministries with greater honesty and discernment.
Author Steve De GruchySource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 362 –379 (2006)More Less
This essay examines the relationship between Protestant mission thinking and the ecological crisis facing the earth. An examination of five contemporary traditions (Evangelical, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and Lutheran) notes that it isextremely difficult for Protestants to deal with the earth crisis missiologically, and it is argued that this is because Protestant missiology is deeply embedded in the selfsame affirmation of human agency that is at the heart of the earth crisis. The essay then engages with the notions of agency, sin and grace to suggest an alternative Protestant approach to mission that is responsive to the depth of the crisis.
Author Charles Peter WattSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 380 –394 (2006)More Less
'What makes a church Pentecostal?' and, 'Is the Pentecostal church losing that which made it Pentecostal?' are questions that should be explored. The globalisation of 'Pentecostalism' through New Pentecostal, Charismatic, and other Evangelical groupings, such as the 'Third' and 'Fourth Waves', has made the definition of 'Pentecostal' pertinent. The unquestioned similarities between these various 'Pentecostalisms' should not blind us to significant differences. This article outlines some of those differences, from a South African perspective. It argues that the globalisation of 'Pentecostalism' has resulted in a growing homogeneity between these 'Pentecostalisms', thereby weakening essential distinctives that fuelled its missionary impetus.
Author Leonard P. MareSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 395 –407 (2006)More Less
The Old Testament proclaims that God reveals Himself in the world for redeeming purposes. God elected Israel to be his people not only to have a living relationship with them, but also to be a light for the nations. This missiological thrust of the Old Testament is made clear throughout the Old Testament, especially in the book of Psalms. The psalms of praise make God's missionary purposes explicit. This article investigates Psalm 96 as an example of the praise of Israel as an enactment of the gospel.
Social action and evangelism. Has Lausanne 1974 helped to redefine mission as a part of the New World Order?, Peter Back : book reviewSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 408 –409 (2006)More Less
The title already clearly states the author's intent. He is not only staunchly against the tendency to link evangelism and social action in the definition of mission, he actually understands this paradigm shift as orchestrated by those favouring a 'New World Order', an example of 'conspiracy theory'. He sees it as his duty to unmask this danger. He sees Evangelicalism as being fatally 'influenced towards world integration between different faiths and different agendas' (p. 6).
Source: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 409 –410 (2006)More Less
In preparation for the 2004 Forum on World Evangelization Luis Bush, Wilbert Shenk and others conducted a worldwide World Inquiry (shorthand for Evangelizing Our World Inquiry) involving almost 7 000 Christian leaders in some 850 cities in scores of countries all over the world.
Source: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34 (2006)More Less
Theological Education that makes a difference : Church growth in the Free Methodist Church in Malawi and Zimbabwe, H. Church : book reviewAuthor Derrick MashauSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 410 –411 (2006)More Less
The book deals with the phenomenon of church growth within the Free Methodist Church in Malawi and Zimbabwe. It explores the question of the interrelatedness between church growth and theological training. In his research, the author used both quantitative and qualitative methods. A number of church leaders, church members, and theological students were interviewed whilst relevant and readily available literature on the issue at stake was consulted.
Never too small to remember : Memory work and resilience in times of Aids, Philippe Denis (ed.) : book reviewAuthor Faure LouwSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34 (2006)More Less
Families who are affected, and especially children who are orphaned because of the HIV / AIDS epidemic, often do not know how to talk about their pain and loss. The Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work in Africa developed the 'Memory Box Programme' to help orphans to record their stories as a way of enhancing resilience and agency in their lives. The basic assumption of the memory box methodology is that children, who have a positive recollection of their parents, their illness and death, are better able to cope with the hardships of their circumstances.
Author Christoph StenschkeSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34, pp 413 –414 (2006)More Less
This volume offers a fresh investigation of the life and writings of Dr Johann Ludwig Krapf (1810-1881), pastor, traveller, pioneer missionary, and explorer in Eastern Africa, as well as scholar, linguistic genius and Bible translator, and later in life a promoter of mission.
Christianity, Judaism and Islam : A Missiological encounter, Glory E. Dharmaraj and Jacob S. Dharmaraj : book reviewSource: Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 34 (2006)More Less