Mosenodi - Volume 15, Issue 1-2, 2007
Volume 15, Issue 1-2, 2007
Making research and evaluation our own: ethical implications for strengthening the foundations for Africa-rooted and Africa-led inquirySource: Mosenodi 15, pp 5 –16 (2007)More Less
Author Chilisa BageleSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 17 –30 (2007)More Less
Chilisa presents the debate on the application of Euro-Western based research methodologies across cultures and the implication of this debate for an ethical research process. She argues that techniques of collecting data in former colonized countries are not always ethical and that the theories and subsequent volumes of literature are not favorable to these societies. Current ethical principles of informed consent are centered on Euro-western values of individualism that do not always apply in communities where collective decision making and community participation in decision making are valued. Within this context, questions arise, such as: What does it mean to be a responsible researcher in African contexts? Ethical issues arise in researching sacred indigenous knowledge using the Mazenge cult as an example. Is it ethical to gather information on a respondent through a third person where the cultural practices sanction the researcher against communicating directly with the key informant such as in the Mazenge cult?
Do western research ethics work in Africa? A discussion about not taking 'the taken-for-granted" for grantedAuthor Agder Anne RyenSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 31 –45 (2007)More Less
Research ethics resemble a virtue one cannot honourably argue against. As such, it is a powerful device and it demands a critical assessment to avoid quick and biased conclusions. This constitutes the background for this discussion on differentiating the contextual from the universal. My errand is to invite you to a discussion of what we come to see as ethical research, or not. Unless we accept this invitation, we risk adopting Western research ethics uncritically on the assumption that research ethics are universal, and so neo-colonialism nips in through the back door. What is seen as ethical research all one context cannot be taken for granted in other contexts. Rather, to find out, we 1leed to explore the things taken-far-granted. I argue research ethics should be seen as a social phenomenon and not as a resource simply to be taken for granted.
Author Peggy Gabo NtseaneSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 46 –60 (2007)More Less
This paper highlights challenges that the researcher encountered during fieldwork. It argues that despite the popularity of qualitative research scholars are only beginning to publicize segments or summaries of ethnographic fieldwork experiences. Using critical self-reflections of the interactions between the researcher and the participants during fieldwork, the paper identifies five ethical dilemmas and how they were addressed in an African context. The paper concludes that an omission to reflect on fieldwork experience hides the conflicts and tensions that all researchers inevitably face and can learn from. Finally, the paper concludes that lessons from the data on the interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee can inform ethical research methodologies and the representation of research findings.
Author Setlhomo KoloiSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 61 –81 (2007)More Less
There is a tremendous amount of social and scientific pressure not only to find a cure for HIV/AIDS, but also to find the most effective ways and means of alleviating its associated problems, such as determining and controlling the social, economic, cultural, educational and other consequences of the pandemic. An attempt to contribute solutions to a problem like the HIV/AIDS pandemic through research often times constitutes a problem itself The process of carrying out related studies may impinge on the basic human rights of the infected and affected. The need to satisfy the tremendous yearning for solutions to HIV/AIDS and its related problems has turned many people, qualified and unqualified, into HIV/AIDS-related researchers. In most cases, research on human subjects raises ethical concerns such as informed consent, research designs, objectivity, confidentiality, provision of debriefing, and community involvement. Kvale (1996) identified three models of ethics:1) duty ethics of principle, 2) utilitarian ethics of consequences 3) virtue ethics of skills, while Mertens (2005) brings in an additional model of Transformative Axiological Assumption. I present an analysis of the Botswana health Research Guidelines and three national HIV/AIDS related research studies in the context of these four ethics models. My main argument is for the advancement of ethical standards that go beyond standard ethical practices to ethical protocols that are sensitive to gender, social class differences, ethnicity or race. These ethical protocols are contextual, situational, embedded in the cultural and value systems of the people and are informed by a dialogue that creates space for the production of other ways of knowing.
Author Pauline E. BrooksSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 82 –103 (2007)More Less
When racism is a deeply ingrained part of a particular society's history, researchers like everyone else in that society are socialized to that racism. Historically, racism has had a strong presence in scientific work in the United States and in some other western nations. In contemporary times, as a result of any number of factors, social scientists may inadvertently introduce racism into the research setting. This article identifies several of the many common manifestations of racism. The discussion includes strategies for identifying and removing racism from various research and other processes, as well as ways for identifying types of racism that may be hidden in the contexts in which research and similar other activities take place.
Source: Mosenodi 15, pp 104 –113 (2007)More Less
Proverbs in the African community are important elements of speech that help transmit cultural values and wisdom from one generation to the next. Education today is seen as an important tool in transmitting cultural values and wisdom, and to address three major problems in most African countries - poverty, disease and ignorance. Research in critical issues in education provides the implementers with solutions to address these challenges. Since its inception in the East African region, as in most developing countries, special education has experienced problems of access, diversity and accountability. The problem of meeting educational needs of children with disabilities is a common and persistent one despite previous research findings. This then calls for a change in research especially in relation to the paradigm used. This paper presents the transformative paradigm as a framework for research related to disability and minority groupings. Transformative paradigm exposes researchers and other educationist to the structural relationships that exist between disability, experiences, and any subject of study or discussions that relate to them.
When researcher and language teacher educator meet : challenges in researching and teaching about issues of diversity in higher education in BotswanaAuthor Dudu JankieSource: Mosenodi 15, pp 114 –131 (2007)More Less
Preparing teachers to teach students from diverse background is an issue of concern to educators and researchers who are committed to multicultural education. Drawing on my professional experiences of teaching the course ""Foundations of multicultural literacy education "" interviews with students, researcher s journal, and the research literature on multicultural education, this paper examines the ethical and methodological challenges 1 encountered in researching and teaching about issues of diversity. 1 explore the questions: Is it ethical for teacher educators to engage in-service and pre-service teachers in discussing issues of diversity that they feel uncomfortable with? What 'borders' are teacher educators crossing and re-crossing as they prepare teachers for teaching diverse students? In what ways the professional, personal and community experiences of teachers inform their responses to issues of diversity? How do these intersect with teacher educator as researcher's commitment to multicultural education? The findings of the study suggest that, whether and how teachers would embrace multicultural education as part of their professional practices depends largely on their perspectives regarding specific issues of diversity.