oa Professional Nursing Today - Clinical guidelines for the antiretroviral management of HIV disease : communicable diseases

Volume 15, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 1607-6672



Both known species of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV-1 and HIV-2, originated in Africa (HIV-1 from Central Africa and HIV-2 from West Africa) as zoonotic infections from primate hosts. Human infection is thought to have been facilitated during the slaughtering of primates for the bush meat trade. About 65% of the global total of HIV-infection is located in sub-Saharan Africa, with South Africa having the highest number of persons, 5-6 million, living with HIV. HIV-1, which is found throughout the world and is responsible for the majority of cases of HIV-infection, has been subdivided into 10 subtypes, A to J (also known as clades or genotypes). Within the South African context, reference to implies HIV-1 subtype C.

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