Professional Nursing Today - Volume 16, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 16, Issue 2, 2012
Author Annelie MeiringSource: Professional Nursing Today 16 (2012)More Less
International Nurses Day (ICN), "Closing the gap: from evidence to action", will be celebrated on 12 May 2012 in most countries around the world. This year, the official ICN theme speaks to all professional nurses, as nurses need to learn how to accumulate all the evidence and knowledge that they have gathered over the years, and to put it into action. The Millennium Goals agreed to by the United Nations forces nurses to take action. They must learn how to identify the best available evidence for their specific healthcare service and user needs, and then use their nursing skills and expertise to improve health care through the implementation of the relevant identified evidence. The first step is to obtain information on how to identify the relevant evidence.
Author Eugene PotgieterSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 4 –8 (2012)More Less
Today's healthcare system is more complex than ever before. As a rapidly advancing profession, nursing demands higher-order cognitive skills from nurses, such as critical, creative and reflective thinking, problem-solving and decision-making, as well as the skills to create a therapeutic and caring environment for patients.
In the clinical setting, nurses learn to apply theory that was learned in the classroom, to real life situations. Clinical settings present problems that are novel, complex, specialised, and unpredictable. Nurses have to learn how to practise safely, within the time-constrained periods that are allocated to the clinical settings. The knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for delivering quality of care, demand that clinical instructors adapt their teaching to a diverse student population, and a variety of patient scenarios. Various factors, including a shortage of nurse educators, limited clinical facilities, decreased acute care admissions, shorter lengths of stay in hospitals, and a shortage of nursing personnel in the clinic facilities, pose challenges to clinical teaching.
Author Gustav SchellackSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 10 –14 (2012)More Less
Caffeine is a naturally-occurring substance that is found in drinks such as tea and coffee, popular cola-type soft drinks that have been flavoured with extracts from the kola nut, energy drinks, and cocoa and chocolate (when derived from cacao pods). Worldwide, most adults consume caffeine-containing products on a regular basis, as an indulgence, a habit, or a necessity. The sensible use of caffeine may have several advantages, including increased performance in the workplace. Humans ingest caffeine in a number of different ways, frequently using it as a mild central nervous system stimulant. However, caffeine may also have a downside, when used excessively or even abused, which could result in caffeinism, or caffeine dependence.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 18 –22 (2012)More Less
Thickened infant formula is widely used as a first-line treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants. The use thereof remains controversial, and conflicting evidence exists with regards to its efficiency. The safety of anti-reflux formula has been proven, with only a few adverse effects reported, making it safe for infants with mild symptoms of reflux.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 24 –28 (2012)More Less
Fortunately, in South Africa, there is access to world-class vaccines. The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) provides infants with similar protection to that offered in first-world countries. In this article, primary immunisations, given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, will be examined.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 29 –30 (2012)More Less
Winter is almost upon us and with it comes the usual influx of customers with colds and flu. Influenza or the 'flu' is not a disease to be taken lightly. Symptoms of flu range from mild and nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections to severe disease with complications such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, secondary bacterial infections and worsening of chronic conditions like asthma and congestive heart failure. Deaths from influenza are reported every year. Our best defense against flu is an annual influenza vaccine.
Author F. FarrerSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 33 –34 (2012)More Less
The common cold is well named, as it is the most frequent acute illness in the industrialised world. A cold is generally a benign, self-limiting viral illness that exhibits a number of symptoms, including a runny nose, congestion, sneezing, a sore throat, a cough, a headache and malaise. These symptoms, while usually not serious, affect day-to-day-life, and prompt patients to purchase over-the-counter medication.
Influenza or flu is a more serious illness. Flu symptoms include those of a cold with the addition of fever, muscle aches, pains and fatigue.
Author Helen L. LoudonSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 36 –43 (2012)More Less
This is the second of a two-part series whereby tabulated summaries of 11 important nosocomial pathogens are presented in an easy to read, "cut out and keep" format. The content is primarily aimed at nursing staff responsible for implementing infection prevention and control strategies at unit level, the objective being to provide simple but relevant information which can be used to rationalise transmission-based precautions and improve patient safety.
Infection prevention and control : reviewing soap and detergents for procurement by healthcare facilities : infection controlAuthor L. ZiadySource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 44 –47 (2012)More Less
This article reviews the use of hand washing soap and detergent in a healthcare facility, with the goal of facilitating procurement of such products. Currently, three active antiseptic ingredients are used in soaps for infection prevention and control. These are chlorhexidine (povidone), iodine, and alcohol. In this article, these will be scrutinised. A précis of research, on the availability of hand washing facilities and hand hygiene culture in a healthcare setting, is included in the review.
Author Bronwyn GreenSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 48 –55 (2012)More Less
The goal when managing any wound, whether it is acute or chronic, is to achieve wound closure as soon as possible.
The process by which wounds heal is complicated and delicate. In order for wound healing to occur, the body needs to allow all the four phases of wound healing (haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and regeneration) to run their course, uninterrupted. One of the major contributing factors to delayed healing in major or minor, acute and chronic wounds, is the presence of bacteria. This article will consider the classification of wound infection, as well as what role bacteria play in the management, and subsequent treatment decisions, of wounds.