Professional Nursing Today - Volume 16, Issue 3, 2012
Volume 16, Issue 3, 2012
Author Annelie MeiringSource: Professional Nursing Today 16 (2012)More Less
To celebrate International Nurses Day 2012, the South African Nursing Council officially named the Council building in honour of Cecilia Makiwane. At a dinner function, the SANC recognised three prominent nursing leaders for their contribution to the nursing profession and the role that they have played in the transformation of nursing in South Africa. Congratulations are given to Prof WJ Kotze, Prof P Nzimande and Mr S Dlamini.
Author Eileen FisherSource: Professional Nursing Today 16 (2012)More Less
I am delighted that as a professional society, we were given the opportunity to be part of Professional Nursing Today. When I received the first piece of information from Dr Douw Greeff, I had no doubt that we would benefit from being involved with such an outstanding organisation.
An introduction to Helping Babies Breathe : the "Golden Minute" is here for South African newborn babies : reviewAuthor C. Van HeerdenSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 6 –7 (2012)More Less
It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that one million babies die each year due to birth asphyxia. Birth asphyxia is the inability of a newborn baby to breathe immediately after birth. In order to understand the golden minute after birth (the first 60 seconds of a newborn baby's life), a new programme named Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), was developed by the American Academy of Paediatrics. The "Golden Minute" can set the stakes between life and death for newborn babies.
Author Jacqui SouterSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 10 –15 (2012)More Less
Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are the most common causes of meningitis. However, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chemicals, cancers and certain noninfectious inflammatory conditions may also lead to meningitis.
In this article we discuss bacterial meningitis, with specific emphasis on the most common causes of bacterial meningitis occurring after the neonatal period, namely Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
The brain and spinal cord are covered by membranes called the meninges. The meninges are made up of three separate membranes namely the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. The dura mater is situated directly beneath and adherent to the skull. The pia mater is the membrane that covers the brain and the arachnoid is located between the dura mater and the pia mater. The region between the arachnoid and the pia mater is where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) passes and is called the subarachnoid space. Meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the pia mater and the arachnoid membranes including the CSF in the subarachnoid space and in the cerebral ventricles.
Author J. SouterSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 17 –20 (2012)More Less
After the initial series of primary vaccines given in the first four months of life, babies return to the clinic for more vaccines at nine months of age. In this article, we will discuss the vaccines that are given between nine and 18 months of age. However, the emphasis will be on vaccines that protect against measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox that have not yet been discussed in this series. The hepatitis A vaccination will be covered at a later stage.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 21 –23 (2012)More Less
Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods to four to six months of age are recommended for the prevention of food allergies. However, many infants receive formula milk for a number of reasons. Various types of formula are indicated to prevent or treat allergy and food intolerance.
Author I. TruterSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 24 –31 (2012)More Less
Microorganisms living within the body can be probiotic, pathobiotic or eubiotic. A probiotic is a microorganism that contributes positively to the body's health. These "friendly" bacteria are also called flora. A pathobiotic, on the other hand, harms or impedes the body in one way or another. A eubiotic can be either harmful or helpful to the body, depending on colony size and location. A healthy body contains a substantially greater number of probiotics than pathobiotics.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 32 –34 (2012)More Less
Immunonutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, glutamine, sulphur-containing amino acids, antioxidants, arginine and nucleotides, affect the immune system. Mixtures of these nutrients reduce length of hospital stay and infection severity, improve gastrointestinal trophism, and reduce postoperative infections, wound complications, days on the ventilator, and treatment costs. This article summarises immunonutrition, and the roles these compounds play in the immune system. Nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects may enhance T lymphocyte function, as they act at various cellular areas, affect cytokine production, and change the response of target tissues to cytokines. Fatty acids change membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, and antioxidants change cytokine production, by modulating the extent of activation of transcription factors by oxidant molecules. However, information on this topic is controversial, and more research is required to determine the exact mechanisms of these nutrients on the immune system.
Author R.C. GroblerSource: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 37 –45 (2012)More Less
Burns are one of the common causes of injury with which patients present to emergency units. Much of the damage caused by burns can be prevented or reversed with appropriate emergency management in the emergency unit.
During the emergency phase, treatment should be directed towards three focus areas:
- Initial assessment and resuscitation (primary and secondary survey)
- Fluid resuscitation
- Wound care.
- Early deaths, as a result of burn shock.
- Late deaths, as a result of sepsis and multiple organ failure.
When burn patients are managed with a systematic approach and care is provided by trained medical staff, the patient outcome improves and medical costs are reduced. Proper evaluation and management that start as early as possible post the burn event, greatly assist in minimising suffering and optimising the outcome for the patient.
Source: Professional Nursing Today 16, pp 54 –55 (2012)More Less