Professional Nursing Today - Volume 9, Issue 6, 2005
Volume 9, Issue 6, 2005
Author Douw GreeffSource: Professional Nursing Today 9 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL Dear Healthcare Professionals It is time for nurses and patients to take out the retrospectoscope! Many of you will have stories about remarkable recoveries and acknowledgement by colleagues, peers and patients this year. Many patients will have wonderful stories to tell about excellent medical and nursing care over relaxed lunches and suppers. Your professional nursing today, showcases the stories people tell about professional nursing - today, tomorrow and forever. It is important to write about these positive experiences. You are welcome to send us positive letters or stories and photographs of what can be achieved. Write a 300-400 ..
Author Helmuth ReuterSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 3 –7 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... As HIV has a high seroprevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, most primary care providers will recognise a patient with advanced disease quite readily and offer voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) to confirm the suspected diagnosis of HIV infection. Modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in decreased opportunistic infections, increased disease free time survival and decreased mortality.1, 2 However, patients with early disease do not present with the same features seen in advanced disease. It is also, however, of the utmost importance to also diagnose HIV infection in these individuals. Firstly, the infected person can take steps so as not to infect ..
Author Christopher C. RachanisSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 8 –12 (2005)More Less
Very early on in the AIDS epidemic, publications indicated that HIV infection is associated with a variety of oral lesions that often occur early in the course of the disease, and tend to increase in prevalence with the decline of infected individual's immune function. In order to carry out proper epidemiological studies on the occurrence of these lesions, a sound classification had to be constructed. In September 1992 members of the EC Clearinghouse on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection met in London, together with members of the US Workshop on Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection, to review the previously published classification of the oral manifestations of HIV infection and their diagnostic criteria. A consensus was reached; the classification incorporated a group of oral lesions based on their frequency occurrence.
Sanofi Aventis's Sixth Module in their Short Course on Neuromuscular Blocking Agents : theatre nursingSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 13 –15 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Professional Nursing Today July / August 2005 Vol. 9 No. 4 51 Time on your side (r) Many of you completed the theoretical component of your training quite a while ago. The use of drugs/medications involves more than just the administration thereof and hopefully the achievement of the desired effect. It requires an understanding of the mechanism of action of the specific substance as well as the body system/s the drug acts upon. This information ultimately helps lead to an understanding of the potential side-effects. To help you in updating your knowledge on the use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents, ..
Source: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 16 –18 (2005)More Less
Surgical Site Infections (SSI) continues to be the most common complication following surgical procedures. These infections are the biological summation of several factors: the inoculum of bacteria introduced into the wound during the procedure, the unique virulence of contaminants, the microenvironment of each wound, and the integrity of the patient's host defence mechanisms.
Author Liezl NaudeSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 20 –24 (2005)More Less
Foot ulcers are the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and often lead to lower extremity amputation. A foot ulcer is an open sore or wound (full thickness skin lesion) commonly occurring under the foot and is associated with reduced healing capacity. Most commonly it is defined as a full thickness skin lesion that takes more than 14 days to heal. The most frequent underlying aetiologies are neuropathy, trauma, deformity, high plantar pressures, and peripheral arterial disease.
Author Jane HooleSource: Professional Nursing Today 9 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... The successful management of venous leg ulcers represents a significant clinical problem and a severe drain on financial resources. These ulcers make up 70% of vascular ulcers and result from chronic venous insufficiency. It is important to differentiate venous from arterial ulceration as the compression bandaging required in the management of venous ulcers is contraindicated in people with arterial ulcers. Venous malfunction initiates a series of events resulting in an increase in hydrostatic pressure, venous hypertension and ultimately skin ulceration. THE EFFECT OF DAMAGE TO THE VENOUS SYSTEM Normal blood flow will be disrupted if there is damage to ..
Source: Professional Nursing Today 9 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Professional Nursing Today November / December 2005 Vol. 9 No. 6 Wyeth South Africa (Pty) Limited is pleased to announce the launch of the first and only conjugate vaccine to help protect infants and toddlers against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). PREVENAR(r) (Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, 7-valent) may be used in infants as young as six weeks of age, to immunise against serious pneu-mococcal diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia and otitis media (middle ear infections). While pneumococcal vaccines have been available for some time for adults and older children, this is the first such vaccine for infants. PREVENAR has demonstrated efficacy ..
Author Leanne ReesSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 32 –34 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Professional Nursing Today November / December 2005 Vol. 9 No. 6 32 Leanne Rees RD (SA) Introduction Infants are born with an acquired immunity system. The effectiveness of this immunity drops significantly over the first two months. Until after 8 weeks infants begin to build up their own immune response to disease. However, during this time, their immune response is very weak compared to that of an adult. They are especially vulnerable to bacteria which cause diarrhoea. It is for this reason that extra care should be taken with regards to bottle feeding, sterilisation and basic hygiene practises. This ..
Author Stephen TooveySource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 36 –39 (2005)More Less
Pregnant and very young travellers should be regarded at higher than average risk of travel related disorders and infections; the impact on the foetus must be considered for all risks and interventions the mother is exposed to. The risk of air travel associated thromboembolic disorder associated is increased by pregnancy; high risk women should ideally not travel, but may be considered for anticoagulation. Young children may be sedated with diphenhydramine for long haul travel, although this is off-label use, and a pre-flight trial is advisable. Pregnant women may safely receive a number of non-live vaccines' Live vaccines are generally contraindicated; this applies to yellow fever vaccine. Travel to malarious area by pregnant women and children <5 years should be discouraged, as should travel by pregnant women to yellow fever infected areas. Mefloquine is the drug of choice, where not otherwise contraindicated, for malaria chemoprophylaxis during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters; it should be used with caution during the 1st trimester as there is a possible association with still birth and abortion.
Author D.F. WittenbergSource: Professional Nursing Today 9, pp 40 –43 (2005)More Less
More than a quarter of the children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit of Pretoria Academic Hospital as cases of suspected poisoning are thought to suffer from toxicity following traditional herbal medications. Such children have a high case fatality rate. <br>The clinical picture resembles the descriptions of the classical Reye syndrome and consists of a rapidly progressive encephalopathy together with features of hepatic and renal damage. Pathophysiologically, there is a profound disturbance of mitochondrial function leading to fatty change, apoptosis and cell death. In fatal cases, the liver shows centrilobular necrosis. <br>Even though "Impila poisoning" has become a commonly assumed explanation for the above syndrome in South African hospitals, there are a number of different causes for this clinical picture. Some herbal medications certainly contain highly toxic compounds, others may do no more than precipitate toxic damage in organs made vulnerable by infective, nutritional or metabolic stressors. Large numbers of children are given herbal remedies and most of these may indeed be quite "innocent bystanders". <br>The present paper provides a review of the subject and argues for a patho-physiological approach to the diagnosis and management of such patients.