oa South African Family Practice - Making sense of statistics for family practitioners : "what are ecological studies?" : review article

Volume 46, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 2078-6190
  • E-ISSN: 2078-6204



Extracted from text ... SA Fam Pract 2004;46(4) 48 Making Sense of Statistics Introduction There are three quantitative study types usually used by medical and public health researchers to understand disease distribution patterns and risk factors: ecological, case-control and cohort studies. In the next three articles we will briefly consider each study type's strengths and weaknesses, beginning with ecological studies. What are ecological studies? Ecological studies consider where and when diseases are occurring in populations. The presence / absence of specific risk factors is not related to individuals with or without disease, but rather to populations. Thus, for example, comparison of published African HIV ..

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