oa South African Family Practice - The diagnosis and management of perniosis (chilblains) : CPD

Volume 49, Issue 6
  • ISSN : 2078-6190
  • E-ISSN: 2078-6204



Perniosis (chilblains) is an abnormal reaction to cold that occurs most frequently in women, children, and the elderly. Chilblains may be idiopathic and self-limited, or associated with systemic diseases. This article discusses the approach to the diagnosis and treatment perniosis and explains the concepts of acrocyanosis and erythrocyanosis.

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