oa Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection - Nosocomial intra-abdominal infection
Peritonitis may be primary, secondary or tertiary and it may be community-acquired (CA) or nosocomial. Primary peritonitis, the entity whereby spontaneous infection of the peritoneum with Streptococcus pneumoniae occurs, does not occur as a nosocomial phenomenon. Tertiary peritonitis which is defined as ongoing intra-abdominal sepsis, despite apparently adequate surgical intervention, can occur either as a consequence of nosocomial or CA sepsis and has a high mortality. The term 'nosocomial infection' is designated to describe infections acquired in-hospital and are defined as "infections which become evident <48 hours after admission". Nosocomial infections are more frequently caused by organisms which are resistant to many antimicrobial agents. Intra-abdominal infections include diffuse peritonitis, localised organ infection, localised multiple or diffuse abscesses, and combinations of these clinical conditions.
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