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- Volume 20, Issue 3, 2005
Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection - Volume 20, Issue 3, 2005
Volume 20, Issue 3, 2005
Author J.R. SnymanSource: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 78 –79 (2005)More Less
In this issue, an article by Liebowitz and Slabbert has relevance to generic substitution and bioequivalence according to South African legislation. General mistrust in generic substitution is common not only in South Africa but also in the rest of the world. South Africans have been spoilt for many years by an over generous medical scheme industry and a small market and were therefore only introduced to the full effect of generic substitution after it had been entrenched in law.
Apprehensions over the present high cancer burden : to what extent can they be alleviated? : short communicationSource: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 80 –81 (2005)More Less
What is the magnitude of the present cancer burden, and what are the chances of lessening the occurrence of the disease? First, it is imperative to appreciate the magnitude of mortality world-wide from this cause. According to World Health Organization, six million people died from cancer in 2002, but by 2020, 12 million will succumb to the disease.
Source: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 82 –84 (2005)More Less
The in vitro activily of the generic forms of cefotoxine, cefirioxone, cefuroxime, cefazolin and cefoxitin, supplied by South African pharmaceutical company Aspen Pharmacare, was compared with that of Rocephin, Zinacef, Kefzot and Mefaxin, Minimum inhibitory concentrations, (MICs) were determined using a microtitre broth dilution technique, according to CLSI recommendations. The in vitro of the Aspen Pharmacare generic agents was found to be comparable to that of the originator drugs. The MICs of each generic agent were within two doubling dilutions of the originator drug, respectively.
Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of selected invasive pathogens from academic hospitals in South Africa for the years 2001 to 2004Source: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 85 –89 (2005)More Less
The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of microorganisms vary from country to country, province to province, town to town and even from hospital to hospital in the same town. They also vary between public and private healthcare facilities in the same location. To some extent, these variations depend on the selective pressure of antibiotic usage in the healthcare centres.
Source: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 90 –93 (2005)More Less
We evaluated sepsis in the neonatal unit at Johannesburg Hospital including the time of onset, clinical features, outcome of the treatment of patients, pathogens isolated, and antimicrobial sensitivity to provide site-specific guidelines for empiric antibiotic therapy. This was a retrospective study conducted in the neonatal unit of the Johannesburg Hospital between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2003. All neonates with growth on blood cultures were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were reviewed. Of a total of 103 infants with 140 positive blood cultures, eight isolates were most likely to be contaminants. There were thus 132 significant isolates in 96 patients : five presented with early onset sepsis (EOS) and 91 with late onset sepsis (LOS). Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant isolates in EOS and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) the predominant isolates (63) in LOS (40/63 considered significant, CoNS were not speciated as Staphylococcus epidermidis). The remaining isolates in LOS were mostly Gram-negative organisms. The case fatality rate was 40% for EOS and 19.7% for LOS. Multiresistant sensitivity patterns (resistance to < 2 classes of antibiotics) were identified in 45 organisms (34.5 %). LOS was more common than EOS in the Johannesburg Hospital neonatal unit but had a lower case fatality rate.
Source: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 20, pp 103 –107 (2005)More Less
Schistosomiasis is endemic in South Africa and continues to pose public health challenges especially in dynamically changing areas, eg. informal settlements. Asurvey was conducted in the central Pietermaritzburg area, KwaZulu-Natal, to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) amongst occupants of informal settlements and to establish the distribution of snail hosts in relation to the settlements. Results revealed urinary schistosomiasis to be present amongst settlement dwellers at low prevalence (7.2%) and intensity levels (mostly <200 eggs/10 ml). Transmission was patchy. Infected snail hosts (Bulinus africanus) were found in nearby rivers and dams and an active focus of S. haematobium transmission was discovered in a city park - the first example of urban schistosomiasis from South Africa. A structured interview questionnaire was administered to settlement occupants to provide ancillary data. The public health implications of schistosomiasis control for South Africa are discussed.