oa Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology - Diagnosing epithelial ovarian cancer : can we detect it earlier? : review



Ovarian cancer often presents late and the mortality associated with the diagnosis is high. Even with careful clinical examination, many subtle signs may be missed. Observational studies confirm that tubal ligation and hysterectomy confer a protective effect. Screening of low-risk individuals is not yet a useful health intervention. This review evaluates various screening options including clinical examination, biochemical markers, morphological and vascular markers and a combination of tests.


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