- A-Z Publications
- Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
- Previous Issues
- Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
Author Greta DreyerSource: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4 (2012)More Less
The best possible introduction to this new issue is, without doubt, the news that the SAJGO was recently accredited by the Department of Higher Education and Training of South Africa, after careful evaluation using their strict criteria. This remarkable achievement confirms the high academic standard of the publication and peer-review and editorial processes and consistent quality as we move into the fourth year of existence.
Knowledge, awareness and utilisation of the human papillomavirus vaccine in Durban : original researchAuthor N. AllieSource: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 6 –10 (2012)More Less
Background : Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancers, low-grade cervical lesions, and warts of the genital tract. Since March 2008, a vaccine against HPV has been licensed for use in South Africa to reduce the incidence of HPV. The rationale for undertaking this research project was to establish the knowledge, awareness, and utilisation, of the HPV vaccine, among different healthcare workers.
Method : Healthcare providers (100 general practitioners, 50 gynaecologists, 50 paediatricians, 50 medical staff and 50 nurses) working in the private sector, in the Ethekweni health district in KwaZulu-Natal, were interviewed. Comparisons of awareness among subgroups of healthcare providers were analysed. Associations between awareness and other factors were tested using a chi-square test.
Results : Awareness of the vaccine was found to be 89% among healthcare workers,while 70.4% of practitioners informed patients of the availability of the HPV vaccine. Most practitioners (77.9%) have only prescribed the vaccine less than ten times. Gardasil® was prescribed by 46% of healthcare workers. In general, practitioners were unaware that Gardasil® could be prescribed to males (62.9%).
Conclusion : Healthcare workers were aware of the HPV vaccine, and prescribed it on request. However, even though practitioners were aware of it, most prescribed it less than 10 times since it was licensed. Knowledge regarding the vaccine is deficient, as practitioners are unaware of its licensed use.
Source: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 13 –20 (2012)More Less
Objectives : The long-term survival rate of patients with carcinoma of the ovary is poor, because this condition is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. A reliable diagnostic and screening test is still lacking. Therefore, a serological test for a novel ovarian tumour antigen was developed and investigated in a clinical setting. This report describes this investigation, the aim of which was to provide data to decide whether the test warrants a further, large-scale trial.
Methods : Serum collected from 25 patients with ovarian carcinoma, 24 healthy controls and 25 control patients with non-carcinomatous ovarian disorders was tested. The test utilises a monoclonal antibody, designated SMO47, to capture the tumour antigen and a normal form of the antigen from serum. Only the tumour antigen is detected by biotinylated Maakia amurensis lectin, which binds specifically to the sialic acid on the tumour antigen.
Results : The sensitivity for the carcinoma patient group was 60% and the specificity for the control patient group was 76% when a cut-off value for 100% specificity in the healthy controls was used. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve was 0. 8200. CA125 tests were done on all serum, and the results compared graphically. The tumour antigen in the serum was very stable and did not seem to be affected by freezing or long storage at 4°C.
Conclusions : The results of this first application of the new test are encouraging and warrant further investigation and testing of larger numbers of subjects to obtain more significant values for the sensitivity and specificity.
Ovarian endometriosis as a premalignant condition : epidemiological, histological and molecular evidence : reviewAuthor G. DreyerSource: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 22 –28 (2012)More Less
Endometriosis is a common monoclonal benign proliferative disorder that may give rise to pelvic malignancy. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is responsible for a large proportion of gynaecological cancer-associated deaths. Early diagnosis is difficult and screening is generally unsuccessful. Knowledge of the risk factors for the development of endometriosis and progression to malignancy may assist in identifying women at risk of developing endometriosis-related neoplasia.
The associations between infertility, endometriosis and the development of cancer are reviewed in this article.
Proliferative growth, metaplasia, hyperplasia and atypia are identified as proliferative disorders in endometriosis and atypia is considered a premalignant lesion. Several endometriosis-related pelvic malignancies have been described, and these all develop from the multipotent Müllerian cell differentiating into epithelial and/or stromal components. The probable histological type depends on the site of the endometriotic lesion and the population group.
Cytogenetic and specific gene alterations that are involved in the carcinogenetic process are described briefly and these may help to predict risk of malignancy or to confirm histological subtype.
The importance of endometriosis as a precursor of ovarian and related malignancies was probably seriously underestimated in the past. Advances in molecular testing, histology and our understanding of oncogenesis may empower us to help prevent these devastating diseases.
High-risk human papillomavirus screening and testing with immunohistochemical surrogate biomarkers : an alternative to polymerase chain reaction : opinionSource: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 30 –33 (2012)More Less
The vacuolisation and ballooning of cervical squamous cells, presently known as koilocytosis, was first described in 1957 by FW Stewart, who defined it as "warty atypia" (a hint towards a possible viral link). The presence of viral particles in the nuclei of epithelial cells of condylomata was first documented electron microscopically by AEG Dunn and NM Ogilvie in 1968. Similarities between condylomata and cervical precancerous lesions led to the hypothesis that the papovavirus causing condylomata may be a contributory factor in cervical carcinogenesis. This hypothesis was confirmed in 1978 by Laverty et al, with the electron microscopic identification of viral particles consistent with a papillomavirus, in a preinvasive lesion in an immunosuppressed woman.
Source: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 34 –35 (2012)More Less
Intestinal obstruction is a rare complication after pelvic radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix. Metastasis from carcinoma of the uterine cervix to the gastrointestinal tract is uncommon. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who was treated by concurrent chemo-radiation for stage II B carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Five years later, she presented with acute intestinal obstruction. A laparotomy revealed a metastatic growth in the transverse colon, which was resected. The colon is an unusual site for metastasis from carcinoma cervix, and it has to be differentiated from a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon. Resection of the metastatic lesion may help palliate acute intestinal obstruction, and possibly prevent a perforation, which can rapidly become fatal.
Source: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 36 –37 (2012)More Less
Cervical carsinosarcomas are rare neoplasms of the female genital tract. Approximately 35 cases have been reported previously. The other name for carcinosarcoma is a malignant mixed mullerian tumour. Usually, this occurs in the uterus, but it can also appear in the ovaries or the cervix. Cervical primaries are extremely rare, and typically occur in postmenopausal women presenting with a polypoid or pedunculated cervical mass. We present this rare entity for gynaecologists to consider, namely the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma in a cervical mass in a postmenopausal woman.
35th National Congress of the South African Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists : congress abstractsSource: Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 4, pp 39 –44 (2012)More Less