SA Pharmacist's Assistant - Volume 15, Issue 3, Spring 2015
Volume 15, Issue 3, Spring 2015
Understanding the medicine schedules part 3 - medicines that fall into more than one schedule : professional practiceAuthor Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 2 –5 (Spring 2015)More Less
In previous issues of SAPA, we learned about the scheduling of medicines, and the type of controls that we, as pharmacy professionals, must put in place to make sure that medicines are used correctly and safely. The situation appears to be complicated, however, by the fact that some medicines appear in more than one schedule. In this issue, we identify some of these medicines, and talk about how to handle them in the pharmacy.
We have previously discussed the controls needed for schedule 1 to schedule 8 medicines. Before looking at medicines that fall into more than one schedule, let's take another look at the reasons why medicines are placed into a schedule in the first place. We'll then look at specific examples of commonly used medicines.
Source: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 6 –7 (Spring 2015)More Less
A sore throat (pharyngitis) is one of the most common conditions with which patients present in the pharmacy. Usually, a sore throat is the result of a viral or bacterial infection, which may cause symptoms such as discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat. Generally, minor sore throats resolve on their own without any complications, although it is important to know when to seek medical attention.
Author S. SchmidtSource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 8 –10 (Spring 2015)More Less
A variety of mouthwashes and gargles are commercially available. Although cosmetic mouthwashes may have the ability to temporarily control or reduce bad breath, and leave the mouth with a pleasant taste, they don't kill the bacteria causing the bad breath. Neither do they help reduce plaque, gingivitis, cavities or chemically inactivate odour-causing compounds.
Therapeutic mouthwashes may be used as part of an oral treatment regime, i.e. to treat infection, prevent or reduce gingivitis (an early stage of gum disease), reduce inflammation, relieve pain, reduce halitosis and freshen the breath, or to deliver fluoride locally for caries prevention. These mouthwashes can also be used to help reduce plaque, decrease the speed with which tartar forms on the teeth and to control tooth decay.
Author S. DavisSource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 11 –12 (Spring 2015)More Less
Spring is in the air, and with it:
- Postnasal drip and coughing
- Runny noses
- Itching of the nose, eyes, throat and ears
- Nasal congestion
- General irritability and fatigue.
Source: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15 (Spring 2015)More Less
Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms (yeasts and bacteria) that live in the intestines and vagina. They fend off attacks by harmful microorganisms, preventing illness. The term "probiotics" also refers to the same yeasts and bacteria available as dietary suppliments or added to certain foods. Most commercial products have been derived from food sources, especially cultured milk products. Commercial products may improve the health of the host when given in adequate amounts. The list of such microorganisms continues to grow and includes strains of lactic acid bacilli (e.g, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces boulardii (a nonpathogenic strain of yeast).
Source: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 16 –18 (Spring 2015)More Less
Almost everyone will suffer from a headache at some time of his or her life. The underlying causes of headaches are many and varied. Most are benign and are easily treated, while a few have symptoms that suggest a more serious condition.Evaluation of each patient is important in determining the most effective treatment. This article takes a brief look at different types of headaches and when a patient with a headache should be referred to the doctor.
Source: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 22 –23 (Spring 2015)More Less
Antacids are a class of medicines used to neutralise stomach acid. They are commonly used as the first-line treatment for the symptoms of indigestion and heartburn. Antacids include aluminium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate and magnesium trisilicate. Some also contain simeticone to reduce flatulence, or alginates to protect the oesophagus from acid reflux.
Author H. Van WykSource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 24 –26 (Spring 2015)More Less
Coughing is a physiological protective reflex action which is meant to clear the airway of mucus, infection, foreign bodies or irritants. Its purpose is to clear the airway so that breathing can continue normally. However, when a cough persists for many weeks or months, it becomes a disabling medical problem which can lead to loss of sleep, muscle pain and stress. Chronic cough sufferers lose sleep and miss work, and also experience exhaustion, frustration, embarrassment and frequent doctor visits. A persistent cough is a major quality-of-life issue.
Coughs can be either acute or chronic. Acute coughs begin suddenly and are often due to a cold, flu, sinus infection or acute bronchitis. Coughing which lasts for more than three weeks is considered to be chronic. Bouts of coughing which last for three weeks or longer might signify an allergy. A cough can be productive, or dry and irritating. The over secretion of sputum and phlegm, which then cause coughing, is described as a productive cough.
Source: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 27 –28 (Spring 2015)More Less
Various health issues in elderly patients can be dealt with at pharmacy level. Osteoarthritis pain, calluses and corns, as well as insomnia, are some of the conditions with which elderly patients often present. This article will focus on the causes and symptoms of these conditions, as well as over-the-counter (OTC) treatment options.
Author L. LambertSource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15, pp 29 –30 (Spring 2015)More Less
Contact dermatitis is characterised by a red, itchy rash caused by a substance which comes into contact with the skin. Although the rash is not contagious or life threatening, it can cause a great degree of discomfort. Soaps, cosmetics, fragrances, jewellery and certain plants can cause contact dermatitis. It is diagnosed by its clinical appearance, together with a compatible history taken from the patient. It is necessary to identify and avoid the substance which causes such a reaction in order to treat contact dermatitis. These substances are either an allergen (a substance which provokes an allergic reaction) or an irritant (a substance which damages the skin). Symptoms vary depending on the cause and type of contact dermatitis present. The symptoms may be severe in certain patients, and may warrant referral to a doctor.
Author Yolanda MoroneySource: SA Pharmacist's Assistant 15 (Spring 2015)More Less
Excipients are inactive ingredients which are added during the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products, such as oral and injectable preparations, topical products, eye, ear and nasal formulations, and suppositories. Their purpose is to aid the manufacturing process.
Although excipients are regarded as inactive, they can cause allergic reactions or adverse effects, such as hyperactivity, bronchoconstriction, itching and rashes on the skin, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The excipients contained in a medication do not always appear on the package insert.