SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 76, Issue 7, 2009
Volume 76, Issue 7, 2009
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 10 –11 (2009)More Less
Author Ilse TruterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 12 –46 (2009)More Less
Stroke is the second most common cause of death world-wide, with two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing regions of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The burden of stroke does not only lie in the high mortality but the high morbidity also leaves up to 50% of survivors chronically disabled. The incidence of stroke in developing countries is expected to rise in the future as the populations undergo what has been referred to as the ''health transition''. At present, the major health burdens in sub-Saharan Africa are infectious diseases, including HIV / AIDS, and diseases related to poverty and malnutrition. However, urbanisation is predicted to increase the risk factors for vascular disease and hence lead to a sharp increase in stroke, such as is found in developing countries.The prevention and reduction in the risk factors of stroke in South Africa is therefore of the utmost importance.
Author Shirra MochSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 20 –49 (2009)More Less
Anxiety is a feeling of unease or disquiet in response to a perceived threat. Activation of neurobiological systems initiate a cascade of events which cause these apprehensive feelings as well as a cluster of physical symptoms including (amongst others) tachycardia, sweating palms, tremor, shortness of breath and restless pacing. The anxiety response is orchestrated in order to prompt us to take appropriate self-preservation action, and is a normal physiological reaction in the face of a threat. If, however, the extent of alarm is excessive in relation to the threat, or continues long after the danger has receded, then symptoms of anxiety may impair normal functioning, resulting in the diagnosis of an anxiety disorder.
Author Nadine ButlerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 25 –48 (2009)More Less
Allergic rhinitis is still commonly considered to be a trivial disease; it should however be regarded as a serious condition, since it impacts negatively on the quality of life of the sufferer, by producing not only severe symptoms, but also complications. In order to elevate the status of allergic rhinitis and to detrivialise it, the South African Allergic Rhinitis Working Group convened in 1996 to formulate management guidelines. In light of the advent of new forms of therapy for patients with allergic rhinitis, a clinical management update was published in 2006. In line with the practice adopted for the formulation of the International Consensus Document, the working groups were composed of representatives from the ENT, paediatric, allergy and general practitioner communities.
Author Gail MkeleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 28 –29 (2009)More Less
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the more commonly used topical antibiotic agents and their role in therapy.
Topical antibiotic agents are some of the more commonly used products by the general public. They are used for a range of conditions from prevention of infection in cuts and grazes to the management of mild to moderate cases of acne. Although they have an important role to play in skin infections, their use is generally limited to short-term use and for the mild to moderate forms of infections.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 30 –36 (2009)More Less
Tablet division is applied where tablets of higher strength are split in half, or quarters, to provide the patient with a lower dose. The exercise is considered compounding by the pharmacist and is mostly used to make the titration of the required dose possible, as well as to save cost where tablets in a product range are flat-priced.
Studies showed that medication cost can be reduced substantially by implementing tablet splitting. Cost of tablet splitters and additional dispensing fees may however reduce savings somewhat, as may possible additional outpatient facility visits, especially in the initial few weeks after introducing tablet division to a medical scheme population.
Splitting scored tablets is approved by the FDA as efficacious and safe, but studies show that the half tablet weights of divided scored tablets often do not pass the dose content uniformity tests. Furthermore, in a recent study the drug content of half tablets, as determined by chemical assay, was not within the USP specifications for nearly 25% of products tested. In these studies, the physical characteristics like scoring and shape did not seem to predict which products would pass the uniformity test.
Certain types of tablets are generally not suitable for splitting, for example extended-release formulations and film or enteric-coated tablets, but there may be exceptions. Tablet size and shape may also play a role in the decision to split a tablet or not. Tablets containing drugs with a wide therapeutic index and long half-life may be more suitable candidates for division. Therefore, some tablets used for depression, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia may be considered for splitting, provided that product and patient characteristics are taken into account. Elderly patients, or those with impaired eyesight, cognition and / or dexterity may find it difficult to split tablets and take them correctly.
Tablet splitting carries a risk of errors due to misinterpretation of the prescription or label instructions by the pharmacist or patient, respectively. Nevertheless, where implemented carefully and with the appropriate counselling, tablet splitting does not compromise patient adherence and satisfaction or clinical outcomes negatively, and this was especially proven for statins.
Author Henry M.J. LengSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76 (2009)More Less
This year's annual PSSA conference held at the Spier wine estate in the Western Cape was a resounding success. The presentations were informative, particularly those which focussed on current trends in the profession. One presentation was, however, disappointing - not because the presenter was poor - she was excellent. It was her message that I found disturbing; the essence of which was the negative perceptions of many young pharmacists of our profession.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76 (2009)More Less
Development of a tool to ensure correct stock management and accurate administration of intravenous amphotericin B : forumAuthor Erin TheronSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 40 –42 (2009)More Less
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76 (2009)More Less
There are currently significant gaps between the potential efficacy of medicines and their actual effectiveness in the real world. A fundamental emerging social responsibility of pharmacists is closing these gaps so that patients realise the intended benefits from their medicines.
Towards the ethical marketing of health products in South Africa - right across and down the supply chain : industry in-siteSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76, pp 43 –46 (2009)More Less
Medicines and health products are not ordinary commodities. Decisions around therapies are made by health care professionals, frequently without patient input. On the other hand, in the area of self-medication, we see patients making decisions that go beyond patients' capacity to make well-informed decisions. Promotions of medicines by pharmaceutical companies and stakeholders in the medicines chain are great influencers in the choice of medicine treatments - patients need the assurance that these processes and decisions are guided by sound ethical principles. The challenge extends further into the realm of veterinary medicines and complementary medicines.
Author Hilton T. StevensSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76 (2009)More Less
The 56th annual South African Pharmacy Students Federa tion (SAPSF) conference was hosted successfully at University of Limpopo, Turfloop campus. The conference created a platform for pharmacy students to gather as a united front to debate, question, raise their concerns to the relevant bodies that govern the profession, and most importantly find the solutions thereto. The SAPSF conference continued the culture of creating relationships between pharmacy students from different backgrounds and parts of the world but with a common objective, love of a future career.
The conference ran along the theme "a new beginning", which was one of the first topics addressed by both Prof PA Venter and Gordon Mohlala, both from the University of Limpopo. They also highlighted the realisation that in order for any new beginning to be established the flaws which hinder history need to be addressed.
Author Tiaan Van ZylSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 76 (2009)More Less
The South African Pharmaceutical Student Federation, SAPSF, is a student body, run by students for students, and has been the pillar foundation for many years in bringing together all the University pharmacy student branches as one to represent the needs of pharmacy students in South Africa. Members include representatives from the universities of KwaZulu-Natal, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, North West, Rhodes, Western Cape, Witwatersrand, Tshwane University of Technology, and Limpopo.