SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 77, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 77, Issue 2, 2010
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
In my world, as you know, I get to read the SAPJ a lot. It's not only my job, it's also my hobby. I love reading, and I have very catholic taste in reading material. I'll read anything and everything. So I love it when the SAPJ has very diverse articles. This month was especially interesting and it stimulated a lot of different thoughts in my head. Which means that I have to share them with you.
Author Sybil SeokaSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
February 2010 saw me being re-elected to lead the Pharmaceutical Society of South Africa for another term, an honour that I appreciate and cherish. Indeed, it has been a great and enjoyable privilege for me to lead the PSSA in the recent past. It has really made me appreciate the passion pharmacists have for their profession. Because of this, pharmacy will grow from strength to strength. There will always be challenges but these will not put the pharmacists I have gotten to know down.
Author Shirra MochSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 8 –12 (2010)More Less
Aggression is an antagonistic behaviour that includes hostile verbal, physical or sexual actions directed towards the self, others or objects. In neuropsychological terms, it is thought to arise when abnormalities of higher integrative functions in the cerebral cortex reduce cortical inhibitory influences, resulting in less inhibition and loss of control of violent ideation. Examples of such behaviour include swearing, shouting, throwing objects, hitting, picking, scratching and head banging. Aggression often occurs in association with agitation, where the patient has increased speech, movement, restlessness and anxiety.
Agitated, impulsive and self-injurious behaviour can be precipitated by anxiety secondary to medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism, hypoglycaemia and shortness of breath; undertreated pain; and delirium secondary to anticholinergic toxicity. In addition, environmental factors such as hyper-stimulating surroundings or excessively boring environs can trigger aggressive behaviour. Reduction of such antagonistic conduct can be effected by management of the underlying medical condition or social circumstance that triggered the hostile actions.
In contrast, unprovoked, impulsive aggressive behaviour which occurs in patients with central nervous system disorders usually requires treatment specifically to suppress the violent symptoms. Patients with neurological deficits such as traumatic head injury, mental retardation, seizure disorders and Alzheimer's-associated dementia can exhibit explosive agitation or aggression, which necessitates drug treatment. Such overt aggressive behaviour can also occur as a manifestation of psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorder, attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia.
Author Fae FarrerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 13 –37 (2010)More Less
New medicines are launched, and for several years are protected by patent laws. Once the patent has expired, any pharmaceutical manufacturer may develop, register and sell a copy or 'generic' of the product. The generic medicine is manufactured without incurring the expenses of clinical research and development of the original product. Generic companies are required only to demonstrate that their product has the same bioavailability as the original product and is therefore 'bioequivalent'. Once a generic medicine is registered, the usually lower price may drive down the price of similar products. The availability of generic products, therefore, should allow for more cost-effective management of disease conditions.
A number of generic medicines were launched in 2009, some of which were the first generics for the original product. The South African Medicines Control Council policy on generic substitution requires the pharmacist to inform the patient of the availability of a generic alternative and where the originator product has been prescribed, pharmacists should discuss the availability of these generics with their patients. Pharmacists, in turn, need to keep up to date with generic product launches to the market. This article discusses the first- or second-generic product launches in South Africa in 2009. Prices used as those from Mims November / December 2009 and are single exit price inclusive of VAT.
Author Gail MkeleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 18 –20 (2010)More Less
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Control short update to the 2009 report, there were an estimated 9,4 million incident cases of tuberculosis (TB) globally. Provisional analysis of this data by age and gender indicates that women account for an estimated 3, 6 million cases. Most of these estimated cases in 2008 occurred in Asia (55%) and in Africa (30%).
Author Catherine WhittakerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 22 –26 (2010)More Less
A sick infant is very worrying for parents and they often seek medical advice from pharmacists regarding their baby's health. This article reviews common conditions encountered in infants from 0-6 months, such as colic, diarrhoea, regurgitation and vomiting, colds and fever. It is important for pharmacists to establish when over-the-counter medication is appropriate and when parents should be referred. Ill babies can worsen very quickly, it is essential to know what signs and symptoms may signal serious problems so that treatment is not delayed.
Author Jacqueline Van SchoorSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 27 –30 (2010)More Less
In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there is a growing need for new antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action, particularly for the management of serious nosocomial infections. Tigecycline is the first in a new class of antimicrobial agents, the glycylcyclines. Although structurally derived from minocycline, tigecycline has been modified to overcome common tetracycline-resistance mechanisms. Tigecycline has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, including activity against some multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The safety and efficacy of tigecycline has been demonstrated in phase lll clinical trials. It is currently approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections in adult patients.
Author Jacqui SouterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 31 –37 (2010)More Less
Novel H1N1 influenza is a new influenza stain that has not been seen before. Most cases are mild and self-limiting. However, there are individuals at high risk of complicated illness and there are cases of rapidly progressive disease in previously healthy individuals. Depending on the severity of the H1N1 influenza infection, antiviral medication may be indicated, possibly with antibiotics or other required therapy. Influenza vaccination is the most important tool in the prevention of influenza. Pneumococcal vaccination should be encouraged for those individuals at increased risk of pneumococcal infection. Antiviral postexposure prophylaxis may be considered for high-risk individuals with close contact of a confirmed or suspected case of pandemic H1N1 influenza. However, an alternative of early recognition of influenza and rapid treatment may be suitable depending on the specific situation.
Author Derrick SmitSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 38 –44 (2010)More Less
The pharmacist may see any of the following red eye cases and this clinical quiz is not only aimed at over-the-counter (OTC) medication, but also illustrates the importance of referring patients who do not respond to OTC medicines for (urgent) medical attention. The case studies are discussed in more detail after the initial case presentations. Read the case studies and decide whether the causes are infective, allergic, inflammatory, degenerative or neoplastic and decide what treatment you would prescribe for the customer and whether you would refer the patient for medical attention.
Author November NkambuleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 46 –47 (2010)More Less
It is my pleasure and privilege to report on the activities of the Association, the National Executive Committee (EXCO) and your elected president, for the period April 2009 to March 2010.
Thank you once again to members of this Association for the faith shown in me in electing me President of this Association for the period mentioned above.
Author Steve WhiteSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 48 –49 (2010)More Less
As President of CPS, I wish to thank all members for the support they have given me before and during my three year term of office. It has been an enjoyable and challenging period in my life and one in which I have certainly learnt a lot both in terms of knowledge and in skills. It gave me the opportunity to travel both locally and internationally and meet pharmacists in all kinds of practice settings and appreciate the challenges that beset all pharmacists in their quest to provide effective healthcare through the correct use of medicine and medicine therapy management.
Author Gus FergusonSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
It was an honour to have been asked to motivate for Honorary Life Membership of the Community Pharmacy Sector of the PSSA for William Bannatyne. It is not my intention, with this brief motivation to detail all Billy's numerous accomplishments and honours received. Suffice to say that within pharmacy he has achieved virtually every honour that he was eligible for, with the exception of the one under discussion.
Author Henry M.J. LengSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
We are only in our second month of this year and yet it feels as if we never had a break just over a month ago. Life in South Africa today, particularly on the political and economic fronts, is fast-paced. This is no doubt the consequence of being part of the global community. In spite of being a relatively small nation we have become an important player in the world economy.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
In the words of Ms Oprah Winfrey : "Let passion drive your profession." I am blessed to be a second generation academic, who has as role model a father who paved the way to prove that anyone can succeed against the odds to live your dream if you have the will-power, passion and enthusiasm. I am passionate about teaching and learning!
Author Stuart HamiltonSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 52 –53 (2010)More Less
Pharmacists are familiar with Pharmacy Council's annual data request for personal details. Included on the form for statistical purposes is a section where one can mark whether one is Coloured, Black, Indian or White or Not Disclosed. I have always marked the last option as, being a third generation South African, I am really not sure what to mark down and I would hate to sign the form declaring that all the above is true when there is a possibility that I may have inadvertently lied.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
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