SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 77, Issue 6, 2010
Volume 77, Issue 6, 2010
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
I was most amused this month to read first Billy Futter's column on page 64 (no, I don't automatically turn to the back page of the journal - I read the articles in the order in which I receive them electronically) and then Gary Black's article on page 50. The reason for my amusement is that they both refer to the same problem - labels that patients cannot or will not read. How's that for synchronicity? We get the message, gentlemen!
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
As I write this column we are in the middle of the greatest sporting event in the world. We, as Africans foremost, and South Africans in particular, need to be very proud of our achievements. So far this event is said to be a resounding success against many sceptics, both internally and internationally. We, as the PSSA, can learn from this experience. Sceptics are everywhere, but, with a clear goal in mind, many things can be achieved.
Evidence-based Pharmacy Practice (EBPP) : gastroenteritis in children : evidence-based pharmacy practiceAuthor Angelene Van der WesthuizenSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 10 –19 (2010)More Less
Diarrhoea is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. It causes the death of about two million children under the age of five years each year. Acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly with a virus, the most common being rotavirus. Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most common bacterial pathogens; Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the most common parasites that can cause diarrhoea. Chronic diarrhoea suggests a non-infective cause such as inflammatory bowel disease or coeliac disease.
Author Catherine WhittakerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 20 –44 (2010)More Less
We have an ever increasing awareness of the importance of tight glycaemic control in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Over the past decade a number of new medicines have become available for the management of type 2 diabetes. We need to have a good knowledge of these agents to optimise patient therapy and meet previously unattained treatment goals. This article reviews the different classes of diabetic medication including their mode of action, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety profile.
Author E.W. HennSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 26 –30 (2010)More Less
Recurrent urinary tract infections occur in approximately 5% of adult women. It has a significant impact on the affected women's quality of life and on health care costs. It is important to be aware of the physiologically protective factors preventing urinary tract infections. The clinician should also be able to identify relevant risk factors for recurrent infection. Clinical evaluation is relatively straightforward in cases without underlying complicating factors, but urine culture ought to be readily utilised. Treatment should be according to local antibiogram patterns and prophylactic and postcoital preventative strategies can be used according to current evidence. Certain subpopulations such as HIV positive patients require a different approach compared to the general population.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 32 –62 (2010)More Less
The human population is growing rapidly and the impact of these numbers is potentially devastating. With an estimated 12% of South African teenagers having been pregnant in their lives, teenagers engaging in sexual experimentation may add to the number of unplanned births. Sexuality is an important part of human development, and the World Health Organization has identified adolescent-friendly health services as a worldwide priority.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 36 –38 (2010)More Less
Constipation is a condition that is difficult to define. It is a common problem occurring in adults and children. Numerous factors can cause constipation in children, including a change in diet and emotional causes. Children with constipation may, however, present with unusual symptoms. Simple advice about sufficient dietary fibre and fluid intake may be all that is needed. Referral to the doctor would be best if these measures are unsuccessful. Diagnosis and treatment of persistent constipation are important to prevent possible complications such as anal fissure, stool withholding and encopresis.
Author Leilani JohnstonSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 40 –44 (2010)More Less
Hepatitis A and B are the only vaccine-preventable causes of viral hepatitis, yet despite the availability of vaccinations in South Africa, both conditions remain endemic.
Pharmacists in both community and institutional facilities are ideally placed to counsel and, or even vaccinate individuals who require preventative prophylactic vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis against both hepatitis A and B. This review highlights the pathogenesis, transmission, medical management and prevention of hepatitis A and hepatitis B in order to empower the pharmacist to effectively inform patients and if necessary, make informed decisions regarding appropriate interventions.
Average, population and individual bioequivalence - answering questions on drug interchangeability : original paperSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 46 –48 (2010)More Less
The introduction of generic medicines brings about the debate around drug efficacy and safety, where bioavailability and bioequivalence play an important role. In recent years, many questions have emerged regarding utilisation of average bioequivalence as the only criterion of evaluating bioequivalence for all drug categories. In this scenario, population and individual bioequivalence were presented as alternative criteria. This paper aims to discuss some of the main questions concerning average bioequivalence as criterion of evaluating bioequivalence, especially in the interchangeability aspect, and emphasises the main differences among these three methodologies: average, population and individual bioequivalence.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 49 –51 (2010)More Less
There is currently an ongoing outbreak of Rift Valley Fever ( RVF ) in South Africa. What is Rift Valley Fever? What are its clinical features and how is it treated and controlled?
A Doctor has prescribed a 5 day course of ampicillin, for a female patient who is currently taking the combined oral contraceptive pill. Will there be an interaction causing contraceptive failure?
Can you identify this tablet?
Community pharmacy can deliver solutions for financing much of healthcare reform : pharmaceutical practitionerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 50 –51 (2010)More Less
Effective communication between healthcare professionals and deaf and hard-of-hearing patients : forumAuthor Hoomairah MoolaSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 52 –54 (2010)More Less
The aim of this project was to facilitate easy recognition and improve effective communication skills between health care professionals and deaf and hard-of-hearing patients.
In order to determine if there was effective communication between healthcare professionals and deaf and hard-of-hearing patients, a questionnaire was administered to 40 patients at Lady Michaelis Community Health Centre identified as being deaf or hard-of-hearing - 20 patients collecting acute medicines and 20 patients collecting chronic medicines. Patients were asked whether they used sign language as a form of communication, whether they understood how to use their medication, whether they had any problems communicating with health care professionals and whether they had any preferences about how health care professionals communicated with them.
The majority of patients collecting acute (17/20) and chronic medicines (15/20) reported problems communicating with health professionals. Although 17/20 patients collecting chronic medicines used sign language, only 11/20 patients collecting acute medicines used this method. It appeared that patients relied on the instructions written on the medicine containers or on translators who could communicate with them in an appropriate manner.
In order to address this problem, two posters - one on how to identify a deaf person and one on how to talk to a deaf person - were created for health professionals. These can be easily duplicated and used in training programmes and as reminders.
Author Gary S. BlackSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77, pp 56 –57 (2010)More Less
Good dispensing procedures require pharmacists to adhere to legal requirements regarding correct labelling of dispensed medicine, for very good reasons. Previous generations of pharmacists took great pride in the accuracy and neatness of their labels and final packaging of the medicines. They certainly considered good presentation a reflection of their attention to detail, pride in their art of dispensing and an effective advert for the pharmacy. It seems that in this age of patient-ready packs and super fast computers, it should be easier to produce legible, accurate and legally correct labels. Sadly however, the report below, based on a complaint from a distraught mother of a young allergic child, tells another story.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
Classified advertisement may be faxed to (012) 664-6476, for attention SAPJ Notice Board, or e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. The placement of classified advertisements is offered as a free service to members and subscribers. Advertisements will be placed for three consecutive months, if space available. Those advertisements longer than 30 words will be edited.
Author Billy FutterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 77 (2010)More Less
Today I am talking directly to you, my pharmacist, as an ordinary member of the public. Like everyone else I read headlines, glance at TV news and listen to rumours. My reaction? - Okay, Okay, Okay - I give up! After years of denial, I have been convinced that our health system is in a mess. The constant battering of my emotions with horror stories and dire predictions has made its mark. I am now a true believer.
But who is to blame and who can I trust?