oa SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Evidence-based pharmacy practice (EBPP) : attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Volume 77, Issue 8
  • ISSN : 2221-5875
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1017



Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric conditions. The core symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsivity and / or inattention. These symptoms can lead to problems in academic achievement, behaviour, personal relationships with family and peers and low self-esteem. Symptoms first present in childhood and can continue through adolescence into adulthood. Co-morbid disorders include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, depression, tics and Tourette's syndrome, and epilepsy. Stimulants are first-line in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate is the most common drug prescribed in this condition. Pharmacological treatment should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan which should include psychological, educational and social measures assessed on an individual basis.

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