SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 78, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 78, Issue 1, 2011
Author Sybil SeokaSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78 (2011)More Less
We are now well into 2011. For some, the end-of-year holidays are already a distant memory, and they're now looking forward to the next break! I do hope that your holiday time was well spent with loved ones. For those of you who had to work, I trust that you will now find the time to "re-fuel."
Author N. SchellackSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 13 –22 (2011)More Less
Author K. OuthoffSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 24 –29 (2011)More Less
Given that anxiety disorders are common and chronic and often co-morbid with both medical and psychiatric conditions, effective and safe anxiolytic drugs are in great demand. Serotonergic agents, in particular the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, have an established track record for the pharmacological treatment of a wide range of anxiety disorders. Despite their slow onset of therapeutic action, their initial exacerbation of anxiety and some of their long-term unwanted effects, they remain the drugs of first choice in primary care. They are relatively safe and exhibit both anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Other antidepressants, such as mirtazapine, reboxetine and agomelatine, and the 5-HT1A agonist, buspirone, are alternative agents, although the evidence of their efficacy covers a narrower spectrum of anxiety disorders. Patients with anxiety disorders who are resistant to these drugs may benefit from second-line (tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors) or even specialist initiated third-line (benzodiazepine, anticonvulsant or antipsychotic) therapy. None of the currently available drugs are ideal for every patient and the advantages and disadvantages of each are best considered when treatment is individualised.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 34 –36 (2011)More Less
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are ubiquitous in humans and infection with HSV produces a diverse spectrum of disease. The vast majority of HSV infections in adults are easily recognised and relatively benign in their clinical manifestation but occasionally life-threatening infections involving viscera and the central nervous system can occur. Genital HSV-2 is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and increases the risk of HIV infection. Suppressive anti-herpes therapy, despite being effective in reducing genital ulcer recurrence, does not reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Molecular diagnostic tools have revolutionised our ability to diagnose infections involving the central nervous system and disseminated visceral disease accurately and with the availability of relatively safe and effective antiviral therapy, potentially fatal outcomes can be averted if treatment is instituted early.
Author Sumari DavisSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 38 –41 (2011)More Less
Treatment of hyperlipidaemia needs to be tailored to each individual patient, taking into consideration the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, lipid profile, response to treatment and adverse effects of the drugs. Low-risk patients may benefit from lifestyle modifications only, while patients at high risk of contracting cardiovascular disease may need immediate pharmacological treatment, despite only moderate abnormalities in lipid profiles. Since hypertriglyceridaemia is often accompanied by low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fibrates may be considered as first-line treatment. Fibrates reduce triglyceride levels and also increase HDL levels. Statins are first choice in treating hypercholesterolaemia as they have been shown to reduce mortality, in addition to lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Severe or mixed hyperlipidaemias may require combination therapy. Since the combination of statins with fibrates can lead to myotoxicity or rhabdomyolysis, drugs that lower the risk for these side-effects should be used. Fenofibrate, in combination with pravastatin or fluvastatin, may be considered.
Author Karen Van RensburgSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 42 –44 (2011)More Less
Dysmenorrhoea can be a debilitating problem in women of reproductive age. Since pharmacists are easily accessible health professionals, many women present in the pharmacy looking for advice on how to manage this condition. Pharmacists are also ideally placed to identify those patients who have primary dysmenorrhoea and those who can be managed at the pharmacy level, from those who require referral for further medical attention.
Author November NkambuleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 46 –48 (2011)More Less
It is my pleasure and privilege to report on the activities of the South African Association of Hospital and Institutional Pharmacists, the National Executive Committee (ExCo) and your elected president, for the period March 2010 to March 2011.
I would like to start of by reiterating my thank yous to members of this Association for the faith shown in me in re-electing me President of this Association for the period mentioned above.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 49 –50 (2011)More Less
Dr Johann Kruger, CPS president, and Johan Bothma, CPS Executive Director, attended the Board of Healthcare Funders (BHF) Conference in August 2010. The Conference concentrated on National Health Insurance (NHI), the viability and status of medical schemes and the sustainability thereof.
Aloe gel and whole-leaf raw materials : promising excipients for the production of matrix-type tablets : cum laudeSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 51 –54 (2011)More Less
The pharmaceutical industry endeavours to develop novel drug delivery systems which require excipients that fulfil specific functions. Excipients from renewable sources are attractive due to their sustainable mass production. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential use of gel and whole leaf materials from Aloe vera and Aloe ferox as excipients in the formulation of controlled release matrix-type mini-tablets. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried aloe materials was characterised by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and their flow properties determined. Matrix-type mini-tablets manufactured from the aloe materials alone, and in combination with other polymers were evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics, mucoadhesive properties, swelling behaviour and drug release kinetics. Some of the formulations exhibited high potential to control drug release from matrix-type tablets and some approached zero-order kinetics.
45th Expert Committee Meeting on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations : World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 18-22 October 2010 : industry in-siteAuthor Douglas OliverSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 56 –58 (2011)More Less
The Commonwealth Pharmacists Association (CPA) was invited to attend the 45th Expert Committee Meeting on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations of the World Health Organisation. Prof Douglas W Oliver represented the CPA on behalf of the president of CPA, Ivan Kotzé. Funding was provided by the Pharmaceutical Society of South Africa (PSSA), by way of support from the South Africa Association of Pharmacists in Industry (SAAPI). The meeting was held at the WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 78, pp 59 –61 (2011)More Less
Medicine has undergone immense changes over the years and from a knowledge and information point of view this may be very daunting for health professionals, and particularly pharmacists, who are in close contact with patients. How can they possibly keep abreast of all the important information from reliable sources?