oa SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Development of and advances in insulin delivery : review
The discovery of insulin revolutionised the management of diabetes mellitus. Since its discovery in 1921, many improvements have been made to insulin preparations, and insulin delivery systems have undergone considerable progress. Because of the inconvenience of insulin injections, various approaches have been attempted to formulate insulin for administration by noninvasive routes. Several new and alternative routes such as oral, pulmonary, transdermal, nasal, buccal, ocular, rectal, and vaginal / intrauterine have been investigated for their significant potential in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This article reviews the different routes available for insulin administration and the many successful developments that have taken place in recent years for convenient and effective insulin delivery.
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