SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 79, Issue 4, 2012
Volume 79, Issue 4, 2012
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
I know you're going to read the PSSA Perspectives article written by Charles Skinner. And I have no doubt that you're going to agree with him, as I do, that there are times when it's really difficult to make a decision as to what is the best thing to do. I've always thought, and I've made no bones about it, that there are times when the law is either incorrect (in my not-so-humble opinion, I hasten to add), or impractical, or both. What do you do? Most of us will do what our conscience tells us to. Of course, Prof Butler may argue that our conscience may not always be correctly informed, but the reality is that that's the way we work in our professional and private lives.
Author Sybil SeokaSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
In my readings, I found something about imagination that can be applied to pharmacy's survival fitness: "Imagination, also called the faculty of imagining, is the ability to form mental images, sensations and concepts, in a moment when they are not perceived through sight, hearing, or the other senses. Imagination helps provide meaning to experience and understanding to knowledge. It is a fundamental facility through which people make sense of the world."
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 8 –11 (2012)More Less
2012: the beginning of the end, or the end of the beginning : PSSA Conference
'Tween a rock and a hard place : doing the wrong thing for the right reasons
The PSSA/ALPHA Pharm Distance Learning Programme 2012
The PSSA/Alpha Pharm Clinical Education Programme 2012 for pharmacy staff
An overview of gastropathy induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs : evidence-based pharmacy practiceAuthor Natalie SchellackSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 12 –18 (2012)More Less
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) constitute a well-known group of drugs that are most widely used for a variety of inflammatory conditions and pain. However, their gastrointestinal side-effects, i.e. ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding, hamper their usefulness in many clinical settings. The selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors (the coxibs) promised to be a group of anti-inflammatory drugs with significantly fewer, or no gastrointestinal side-effects. Nevertheless, more recent research into their effectiveness and safety profiles revealed that they are also associated with an increased risk of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal toxicity. Guidelines suggest that patients at risk of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcers and toxicity should be given preventative treatment. However, only a small percentage of these patients receive any therapeutic intervention. Multiple strategies exist for reducing the risk of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications. An overview of these strategies and treatment options is provided in the article, as well as novel approaches to developing gastrointestinal-sparing NSAIDs (using selective inhibition of terminal prostaglandin synthases, and modified NSAIDs to slowly release gastroprotective gaseous mediators, e.g. nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide).
Author Ilse TruterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 20 –25 (2012)More Less
Aspirin is the most commonly used medicine worldwide. Possibly, it is also still the most versatile and effective medicine on the pharmacist's shelf. Initially, aspirin was used mainly to relieve pain, and ease fever and hangovers. This 110-year-old drug is now a mainstay in the prevention of myocardial infarctions and strokes, especially heart attacks occurring in men, and strokes occurring in women, for the first time. It is not yet clear who benefits most from daily aspirin, and how much to take, but it is evident that age and risk factors determine this. For prevention against myocardial infarctions and strokes, it is generally agreed that 81 mg of aspirin a day offers good protection, with the least stomach irritation. Therefore, aspirin has a "balance sheet", with positive and negative effects, that need to be carefully weighed up. Increasingly, the literature refers to the concept of aspirin resistance. The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview and update on the literature published on aspirin. For example, three papers published in the March 2012 edition of The Lancet suggested that daily aspirin can be used to help prevent, and possibly treat, cancer. Emerging data on aspirin, and the reduction of cancer incidence and mortality, has opened a new non-cardiovascular role for aspirin that requires further study. The major uses of aspirin in the 21st century are no longer pain and fever only. They also now extend to its unique antiplatelet effects, and for the chemoprophylaxis of cancer.
Author Leilani JohnstonSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 34 –39 (2012)More Less
Viruses account for most respiratory tract infections. However, antibiotics continue to be prescribed and utilised inappropriately. Indiscriminate prescribing and patient noncompliance contribute to the rising prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Only 15 (out of 167) new antibiotic agents are being developed that have a new mechanism of action. It is imperative that healthcare professionals adhere to the rational use of antibiotics, and advise their patients accordingly.
Author Jacqui SouterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 40 –44 (2012)More Less
Thyroid hormones are responsible for normal growth and development, and the maintenance of metabolic processes. Hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormone production) and hypothyroidism (deficiency in the production of thyroid hormone) are common conditions. This article gives a brief overview of thyroid hormone production and then discusses hyper- and hypothyroidism.
Author James KerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 45 –46 (2012)More Less
Observational studies, such as the Framingham Heart study, or the French IPC study, showed that a high resting heart rate is associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality in the general population, and this has also been demonstrated in hypertension, acute myocardial infarction and heart failure, or left ventricular dysfunction.
Impact of a performance management system in a South African retail pharmacy on the provision of pharmaceutical care to patients : original researchSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 51 –58 (2012)More Less
Background: An investigation was undertaken to determine whether pharmacists at one independently owned retail pharmacy were compliant with Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) standards for the provision of pharmaceutical care to patients. It was hypothesised that the pharmacy's performance management system (PMS) undermines compliance with these standards, and thus the provision of pharmaceutical care.
Method: A triangulation approach was used. The quantitative research method involved 200 patients who completed a questionnaire. The qualitative research method involved conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with all four dispensary employees.
Results: At least 50% of patients perceived that only two out of 10 pharmaceutical care services were always provided. All pharmacists agreed that the provision of pharmaceutical care was a key performance area, and there were several commendable aspects of the PMS. However, nine key weaknesses in the PMS were identified. These included inadequacies relating to the pharmacy's vision and mission statement; poor awareness of GPP standards; the absence of fundamental documentation, such as job descriptions, and performance appraisals; confusion regarding performance objectives; inadequate training and development; and misunderstandings regarding remuneration. Prominent findings are that time pressures contributed to difficulties in providing pharmaceutical care, and that a key performance target was to serve customers as quickly and efficiently as possible.
Conclusion: These weaknesses in the PMS may have undermined compliance with GPP standards. Non-compliance increased the potential for patient harm, and posed operational risks that could have undermined the business's financial performance.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 59 –63 (2012)More Less
The theme of this year's conference recognised the need to broaden the horizons of the pharmacy profession. Delegates were encouraged to think and act beyond imagination to address changes that are occurring, or that are needed in the healthcare arena. This extends to National Health Insurance, areas of specialisation for pharmacists, antibiotic stewardship, National Core Standards and the Consumer Protection Act. The list goes on. All pharmacists are challenged to turn these changes into opportunities for growth and fulfilment.
Author Thanushya PillayeSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
Nothing refreshes like another fantastic SAAHIP National conference. And this past conference, organised by the Northern Gauteng Branch with Sanet Burger as convenor, did not fail to deliver. It had something for everyone, including a stimulating academic programme, which, among other things, gave a clear indication of the ward pharmacy initiatives that are underway in various hospitals around the country. This is great for pharmacists who want to get their initiatives off the ground, or for those who wish to benchmark.
Author Wim GrobbelaarSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 68 –69 (2012)More Less
On 16 April 2012, Pravin Gordhan, Minister of Finance, said: "We not doing enough to create jobs. The real issue is ... can we mobilise all of the South African resources ... in order that all of us do what we can, to put people into some kind of a job in the private sector? You can't just look at government. Seventy per cent of those jobs must come from private sector" (Business Report, 16 April 2012).