SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 79, Issue 7, 2012
Volume 79, Issue 7, 2012
Author Johann KrugerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
I have often heard people say: "What is the PSSA doing for me?" For me, the answer is obvious, since I have been involved in pharmacy politics for more than 26 years, but I have to put myself in the shoes of the person asking the question. Assuming that that person has no knowledge of the Society, I have to surmise that he or she is unaware of any marketing drive or advertised programme that promotes the profession. That leads me to the question: how does one market a profession and the services that it delivers to the public?
Author Ilse TruterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 12 –16 (2012)More Less
A muscle cramp is an involuntary contraction (tightening) or spasm of a muscle. This contraction is often painful and can be caused by movement. The cramping causes the muscle to feel hard, and the muscle often seems to bulge. Cramps can affect one muscle or a group of muscles. Although muscle cramps are associated with a number of medical conditions, for example, dehydration, neuropathies, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease and pregnancy, they frequently occur without an identifiable underlying cause. They are then referred to as idiopathic muscle cramps, a common medical complaint that is more frequent in the elderly. Although any muscle group can be affected, usually they occur at night in the lower limbs. Treatment options include quinine and its derivatives, but these medicines are associated with significant, primarily haematological, adverse events. Therefore, they should not be used routinely in the treatment of muscle cramps. Small studies have suggested that gabapentin, diltiazem and vitamin B complex are effective in treating muscle cramps. However, the results of these studies should be confirmed by larger trials. Stretching and massage are common non-pharmacological treatments that are used. There is limited evidence of their effectiveness. More research is needed on the safety and effectiveness of treatments for muscle cramps.
Author J.A. KerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 17 –19 (2012)More Less
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic airflow limitation (obstruction), not fully reversible, some significant extrapulmonary effects and important co-morbidities, all of which may contribute to the severity of the disease. Co-morbidity may be myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, respiratory infection, bone fractures from osteoporosis, depression, diabetes, sleep disorders, anaemia and glaucoma.
COPD is an important cause of death and morbidity worldwide. The estimated prevalence of COPD varies from 7% to 19% around the world. It is also true that COPD remains underdiagnosed.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 20 –27 (2012)More Less
Rotavirus disease is known to be the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. It affects nearly all children by the age of five years. Transmission of the virus occurs mainly through the faecal-oral route. Complications that are associated with rotavirus infection include malnutrition and dehydration. These may have a fatal outcome. Vaccination against rotavirus disease is the most efficient way to protect children against rotavirus infection and can save many lives. Primarily, treatment is aimed at rehydration to replace fluid and electrolyte losses.
Author Gail MkeleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 28 –30 (2012)More Less
Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major concern in the management of acute rhinosinusitis. This is largely due to the difficulty in differentiating between viral and bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. To address this issue, national practice guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections have been developed in South Africa. These guidelines are frequently updated as new information becomes available. This article provides a brief overview for the pharmacist on the current guideline-recommended approach to the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.
Author Mojakgomo MotswalediSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 32 –36 (2012)More Less
Scalp diseases are common in both children and adults. They can occur as primary scalp diseases, such as tinea capitis, traction alopecia, folliculitis keloidalis nuchae, and folliculitis decalvans, or as part of a generalised skin disease, like atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and secondary syphilis. Scalp disorders can be non-scarring and reversible, while others can cause scarring, and are often permanent.
Review of antimicrobial use in patients admitted to an ICU and high care unit in a private healthcare setting : forumAuthor Kristien Van SchalkwykSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 37 –39 (2012)More Less
The increased emergence of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics has become a serious concern as there is a limited pipeline of new antibiotics, especially those with novel mechanisms of action. In order to preserve the current antibiotic arsenal, antibiotic stewardship has been proposed to reduce overuse and the correct selection of these agents. The hospital where the study was conducted runs a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship round once per week.
Author Gary BlackSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79, pp 41 –43 (2012)More Less
As authorised prescribers, doctors have the power of the prescribing pen, with access to all schedules of medicine. Doctors are not infallible and can be easily drawn into a situation in which they may abuse their prescribing powers, either to feed their own addiction, prescribe outside of their scope of practice, inappropriately treat family members or perpetuate the addictive habits of close friends.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
Author Billy FutterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 79 (2012)More Less
Research continues to show that pharmacist interventions can make significant differences to the safe, effective and accessible use of pharmaceuticals, as well as dramatically improve the quality of life of the community. How many pharmacists are making those interventions and how does the public react? We consider a few diverse aspects that relate to this issue.