oa SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : review

Volume 79, Issue 7
  • ISSN : 2221-5875
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1017



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic airflow limitation (obstruction), not fully reversible, some significant extrapulmonary effects and important co-morbidities, all of which may contribute to the severity of the disease. Co-morbidity may be myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, respiratory infection, bone fractures from osteoporosis, depression, diabetes, sleep disorders, anaemia and glaucoma.

COPD is an important cause of death and morbidity worldwide. The estimated prevalence of COPD varies from 7% to 19% around the world. It is also true that COPD remains underdiagnosed.

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