oa SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Oral antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus : review
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic medical conditions worldwide, and describes a group of metabolic disorders characterised by hyperglycaemia due to impaired glucose homeostasis. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that in 2011, 366 million people worldwide were living with diabetes, and that 80% of these individuals live in low- and middle-income countries. It is projected that by 2030, this number would have risen to 552 million. According to the IDF, the estimated diabetes prevalence for South Africa is 6.46% for adults aged 20-79 years approximately 1.9 million of 30 million adults). Uncontrolled hyperglycaemia may result in both short- and long-term complications that can affect virtually every major organ system in the body. Diabetes self-management education is the cornerstone of care for individuals with diabetes mellitus who want to achieve successful health-related outcomes. Early initiation of treatment for diabetes is associated with improved glycaemic control over time, and decreased long-term complications, such as cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. This short review article will focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus and treatment with oral hypoglycaemic medications.
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