oa SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : an update : review

Volume 82, Issue 6
  • ISSN : 2221-5875
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1017



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a chronic condition that affects the respiratory system and worsens over time. The two major risks that are associated with this disease are cigarette smoking and an advancing age. It is concerning that the global incidence of this chronic illness is on the rise, with current projections indicating that it will become the third-leading cause of death by the year 2020. Inflammatory changes underlie the pathophysiology of COPD, with irreversible damageand a progressive narrowing of the air passages that follow. COPD is characterised by a progressive loss of lung function. In addition,the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Disease Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or GOLD,released the latest update of their Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and prevention of Chronic Obstructive PulmonaryDisease in 2015. This article provides an overview of the causative risk factors, the underlying disease process and pathophysiologicalchanges, the classification and the management of COPD, including the latest perspectives on this highly-prevalent condition.

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