SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 82, Issue 8, 2015
Volume 82, Issue 8, 2015
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
It was love at first sight. Well, not actually sight. It was more like love at first imagining. And no, I'm not talking about a person. It was my very first organic chemistry lecture as a "mature" pharmacy student. (Nothing mature about it. It just meant I was older than the rest of the class. Which is why Prof Paul Danckwerts called me ouma when I was 26. He wasn't a prof in those days. He was also a slightly mature student. He was all of 21.)
Author Sarel MalanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
As with everything, the Pharmaceutical Society of South Africa has also evolved over the 7 decades of its formal existence. The 'big bang' in this case was the 1946 unification of the pharmaceutical societies that developed in different parts of the country following the establishment of the South African Pharmaceutical Association in 1885. This unified society developed and functioned as independent branches and separate bodies representing the various spheres of pharmacy practice until establishment of the current constitution towards the end of the 20th century, creating one umbrella society with four sectors representing pharmacists in Academia, Industry, Hospital and Institutional, and Community Pharmacy respectively. The 13 branches, representing all pharmacists and sectors in a specific region, continued functioning under the PSSA.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 8 –9 (2015)More Less
The PSSA National Executive Committee (NEC) met on 17 and 18 August 2015. This was the first meeting chaired by the new president Prof Sarel Malan.
The President challenged the different sectors to comment on the functionality of their own sector but also on how they perceive the other sectors in terms of what is working and what is not working - this was a very insightful session for all.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
Young Pharmacists in the Cape meet and greet!
The PSSA Young Pharmacists' Group together with the Cape Western Branch (CWP) of the PSSA hosted a second meet-and-greet evening of the year on Thursday 6 August 2015 at Pharmacy House in Kenilworth. The topic of the evening was "How to run an efficient and effective dispensary". This topic was introduced by the CWP Branch Director, Gary Black, with an approach of "the right medicine, for the right person, at the right time, with the right advice".
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 12 –16 (2015)More Less
Allergic diseases are increasing all over the world, now affecting up to 40% of the population. The most frequently occurring allergic conditions include allergic rhinitis (hay fever), chronic sinusitis, atopic dermatitis, and chronic urticaria. The literature suggests that second-generation histamine 1 (H1) antihistamines are the preferred first-line therapy for most chronic allergic conditions, including allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Patients taking these antihistamines report little to no adverse effects with long-term continuous treatment. Second-generation H1-antihistamines have been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect, and continuous administration may improve their efficacy.
Author Haley Van WykSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 17 –21 (2015)More Less
Bacteria are normally associated with causing disease. However, the body is full of bacteria, both "good" and "bad". The intestinal tract is host to a vast range of microbes which are necessary for health. However, these microbes have the potential to contribute to the development of diseases by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics are "healthy" microorganisms, such as yeast or bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria, which are good for health. Probiotics are often referred to as "good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help to keep the digestive system healthy and are believed to protect the immune system. Probiotics exhibit strain-specific differences in their resistance to acid and bile, in their ability to colonise the gastrointestinal tract, in their clinical efficacy and in the benefits that they confer on the host in terms of health.
Author Sonal PatelSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 22 –27 (2015)More Less
An organ transplant involves replacing a failing organ with a healthy one from a donor who is either living or deceased. Some of the most commonly transplanted organs include the kidney, liver, heart, pancreas, lung and small intestines. Life-long immunosuppressant agents are the mainstay of anti-rejection therapy for patients who have received an organ from a non-identical donor. Organ transplant patients are often required to take several different types of medicine to prevent the rejection of, and promote the healthy function of, the organ. Many patients do not adhere to their immunosuppressant regimen because of the high pill burden, leading to transplant failure. Pharmacists have an important role to play in ensuring that patients receive adequate support and counselling on their organ transplant medicine.
Author Melinda SuchardSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 28 –31 (2015)More Less
"Immunosenescence", or ageing of the immune system, is the term given to changes (in comparison with younger individuals) observed in the immune systems of elderly individuals. Elderly individuals are predisposed to more severe symptoms from certain infections than young adults, and they do not mount as an effective immune response to vaccination. In addition, the elderly suffer from more malignancies than younger individuals, which may be because of because of failure to provide surveillance against immune system challenges, such as tumours. This decrease in immune function is paradoxically coupled with features of chronic inflammation in the elderly, termed "inflammaging". The mechanisms of immune senescence are multiple, but seem to be driven largely by changes inT cell-mediated immunity. There are fewer antigen-naïve T cells in the peripheral blood of aged individuals than there are in younger individuals. The memory T-cell repertoire is not as broad as that in younger individuals, and the memory T cells demonstrate a poorer functional ability to respond to pathogens. It is likely that these T-cell changes result from the involution of the primary organ of T-cell development, the thymus. Thymic activity is maximal following birth, followed by thymic involution from as early as one year of age. By puberty, adults are left with only a small thymic remnant. While many investigators seek to counteract immune senescencein order to improve vaccine responses or ameliorate various diseases, thymic involution is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. Such conservation implies that immunosenenscence is driven by natural selection, and may serve a particular biological function. Such a function may relate to immunity against infections or cancer, as well as to immune tolerance of commensal organisms or the foetus for reproductive compatibility.
Author B.G. LindequeSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 32 –34 (2015)More Less
Dysmenorrhoea is a descriptive term for several conditions that cause menstrual pain. While various grades of menstrual pain occur commonly in the menstruating population, approximately 15% of this group of women experience sufficient pain and discomfort to report to healthcare services.
Dysmenorrhoea is classified as either primary or secondary, and consideration should be given to a third type, i.e. once-off, at the time of passing an endometrial cast.
Primary dysmenorrhoea is predominantly found in young women, is caused by prostaglandin activity, and responds well to oral contraceptive use, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug medication.
Secondary dysmenorrhoea, which can occur in any age group, and appears as a consequence of other serious conditions, is the main challenge. The most common other serious conditions include endometriosis, the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices, pelvic infections, uterine adenomyosis, sometimes fibroids, and ovarian cysts. Clearly, these conditions must be considered, diagnosed and treated to resolve the main complaint of dysmenorrhoea.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 36 –37 (2015)More Less
Author Christine VenterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 38 –39 (2015)More Less
Pharmintercom was one of the most life affirming experiences I have had in a long time. It was held from 23 - 27 August 2015 in London in a beautiful setting on the banks of the Thames River at The Royal Horse Guards Hotel. The hotel was built in 1884 by the Liberal MP and property developer Jabez Balfour; it is a setting rich in history and interesting stories. The meetings were held at the hotel's conference venue, One Whitehall Place; the staircase was used in one of the James Bond movies!!!
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 40 –42 (2015)More Less
Author Joggie HattinghSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
Really? How often do we perceive ourselves to be working harder than before only to find that our statistics do not support our belief? It seems that staff at each facility think that they are working harder than everyone else, yet when placed in another pharmacist's shoes for a while they realise they have a lot to be thankful for and that they still have some slack in the system to take on extra work. Once when faced with numerous complaints of fellow staff members that they were working too hard, I challenged them: "Everybody who works hard for the full eight hours of every workday, raise your hand". Not a single hand was raised. I commented: "Then you all owe the company a couple of hours' work, as we are paid to work hard for eight hours every day."
Author Sandra Van DykSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
Uncle Charlie's was the starting point and end point of all travel in Gauteng (back then actually Transvaal). Uncle Charlie's had everything, a Dakota, restaurant, and a filling station but above all it was where you met the person you trusted with your life and were about to follow to whatever destination you needed in and around Johannesburg. GPS extraordinaire.
Author Liesl BrownSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less