SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 82, Issue 9, 2015
Volume 82, Issue 9, 2015
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
I've been thinking. Yes, I do sometimes. I've been speaking to pharmacists recently about patients' rights, how the patients' rights charter developed and the effect that it has had on our legislation, and ultimately our daily practice as pharmacists. Inevitably, the discussion must begin with our country's magnificent Constitution. The Constitution binds the country, its leaders and its citizens to uphold democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights. Whether the commitment is adequately honoured or not is a discussion for another day.
"We make a living by what we do, we make a life by what we give" - Winston Churchill : president's messageAuthor Sarel MalanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
The ultimate aim is to build a life while making a living as a pharmacist. How successful you are will ultimately depend on the care and empathy you give, the decisions you make, your communication with other members of the healthcare team, and the information and advice provided to patients. The foundation for this will be in the knowledge and wisdom gained through education and training, life-long learning and experience.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 7 –12 (2015)More Less
Chronic disease: Take control
Pharmacy awareness dominated activities during September2015. The first week marked South Africa's Pharmacy Week, with the theme "Chronic disease: Take control", while 25 September was World Pharmacist's Day, with the theme "Pharmacist: your partner in health". The PSSA is proud of those members who used their initiative and participated in both.
Author Shanil NaidooSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 13 –17 (2015)More Less
The rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Africa is rapidly increasing. Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major risk factor for CVD. Lowering LDL cholesterol levels to the appropriate treatment targets is strongly associated with a decrease in mortality and improved outcomes. This article provides a practical guide to the stratification of patients according to the cholesterol treatment targets, based on classification into various risk categories.
Author K. OuthoffSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 18 –22 (2015)More Less
Switching antidepressants because of lack of efficacy or unacceptable side-effects, while often required in general practice, may result in toxic drug-drug interactions, worsening depression or unpleasant discontinuation reactions. Switching strategies to minimise these risks include immediate switching, cross-tapering or incorporating a washout period. Immediate switching is generally possible when substituting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor for a drug from its own class. Cross-tapering over a period of weeks is preferred when switching between different antidepressant classes or from high-dose antidepressants. Dangerous interactions necessitate the observance of an adequate washout period when switching to and from monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Author Haley Van WykSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 23 –28 (2015)More Less
Acute-onset diarrhoea is common, and is generally caused by infection with a variety of viruses, bacteria or parasites. Acute diarrhoea may lead to life-threatening dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. When diarrhoea is not halted, there is a risk of disturbed digestion and the absorption of nutrients, with nutritional deterioration. Worldwide, diarrhoea is second only to respiratory illnesses as a cause of childhood deaths. Oral rehydration therapy is the mainstay of treatment for acute infectious, uncomplicated diarrhoea. Preventing dehydration is the main focus of treatment. Hospitalisation and intravenous fluids are necessary in severe cases.
Author Gail MkeleSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 29 –32 (2015)More Less
Pharmacological agents used to manage osteoporosis act by decreasing the rate of bone resorption thus slowing down the rate of bone loss, by promoting bone formation, and with the newer generation of medicines, by combining both mechanisms. The aim of treating osteoporosis is to preserve bone mass, restore bone strength and prevent fractures. Although the treatment of osteoporosis is important, its detection and prevention are just as important.. Prevention involves maximising peak adult bone mass and reducing the rate of bone loss. This may be achieved by regular exercise, adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, and the identification and management of risk factors.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 33 –39 (2015)More Less
The term "diabetes mellitus" refers to a group of disorders that relate to carbohydrate metabolism. The condition is characterised by hyperglycaemia due to decreased and therefore inadequate levels of insulin in the body, resistance to the effects of insulin, or a combination of both. The symptoms of marked hyperglycaemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, polyphagia and blurring of vision. The aetiological types of diabetes mellitus are type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes mellitus and other specific types. However, the two major categories of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients are usually at risk of developing ketoacidosis and require insulin therapy. Patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as opposed to those suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus, still have functional pancreatic β cells which produce insulin. However, they suffer from a relative lack of insulin, i.e. a combination of insulin resistance and the impaired secretion thereof. These patients may require oral hypoglycaemic agents, or a combination of both oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin. The effective management of diabetes mellitus is dependent upon three main aspects, namely appropriate dietary modification, suitable exercise and appropriate pharmacotherapy. The more progressive forms of this disease require combination therapy. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus may lead to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. Patient compliance is very important in achieving the goal target and positive treatment outcomes. Multiple co-morbid conditions often complicate diabetic treatment and increase the risk of complications. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the most common comorbid conditions. Therefore, tight glycaemic and blood pressure control is important in order to prevent disease progression and the development of complications. Important aspects that require consideration when managing individuals with diabetes mellitus are reviewed in this article. The effective management of patients with diabetes mellitus involves a complex decision-making process. The ultimate goal is to attain good glycaemic control. A unique management plan for each patient can be devised through the adoption of a personalised approach to the care of these individuals, which can result in improved outcomes.
Zoely: a novel combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol : drug info - new product focusSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 40 –41 (2015)More Less
Combined oral contraceptives containing oestradiol, in place of ethinylestradiol, have been developed over the past few years. Recently, an oestradiol pill has become available which contains oestradiol valerate, in combination with the progestogen, dienogest, in a four-phase, 26-day pill regimen. Zoely is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive which contains oestradiol in a 24-day pill regimen.
Author Joggie HattinghSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
was in 1995 at a conference in Pretoria where I met an old student friend. That morning the lampposts were pasted with the news of students who stole the presidential plaque the previous night from the Union Building! Funnily they were not caught by the police or by security police, they were apprehended by a private security firm who just happened to drive by and who were alert enough to realise that something odd was afoot!
Lamivudine monotherapy as a holding regimen in the era of antiretroviral treatment resistance : forumSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 43 –45 (2015)More Less
Limited treatment options are available for HIV-infected paediatric patients that are virologically failing combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). This paper describes the use of lamivudine monotherapy (LM) as a holding strategy for the short-term treatment of specific multi-drug resistant paediatric patients, where a definite suppressive cART regimen is not possible. Lamivudine monotherapy should only be used under close supervision and monitoring of an expert HIV clinician.
Author Christine VenterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82, pp 46 –47 (2015)More Less
I am currently in the very privileged position of having attended a lot of meetings and conferences, which interestingly enough have all had a common theme : attitude and change. These meetings have caused me to give some thought to these two small words : attitude and change. The Oxford dictionary defines attitude as "a settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person's behaviour". Quite often, the way we feel about a situation comes from our attitude towards that situation.
Author Sandra Van DykSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 82 (2015)More Less
Today's generation of young people are said to be the most intelligent ever. I do not have any reference to prove or disclaim this nor do I want to, but I can remember growing up in the Sixties and Seventies. A time of great exploration and experimentation and most of all taking responsibility for your actions and suffering the consequences whatever they were. Your parents gave you the freedom to find out who you were and what you were capable of, only interfering when the real issues were at stake. You had to take responsibility for what you wore, for school, for sex, for drugs, for the experiments you delved in and for keeping secrets. You were death defying.