oa Central African Journal of Medicine - Studies on malaria prophylaxis with chlorproguanil or chloroquine in Mozambique

Volume 34, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 0008-9176



Two trials of different type of malaria prophylaxis were carried out in Southern Mozambique in 1985 and 1986. In Maputo, 225 children were randomized to prophylaxis for 15 weeks with either chloroquine approximately 6,3 mg/kg, chlorproguanil approximately 0,45 mg/kg or placebo. In Xai-xai, 170 children were given prophylaxis for 17 weeks with chlorproguanil approximately 0,41 mg/kg, 0,75 mg/kg, 1,05 mg/kg or placebo. In both studies, pretreatment with chloroquine was included, but in Maputo, this cleared only 43 per cent of infections. The parasitological results indicate that none of the prophylaxis regimes were more effective than placebo in Maputo. The results in Xai-xai suggest some effect of chlorproguanil, particularly at the highest dosage, but the incidence rates were very low in the Xai-xai study, and the differences were not significant. In vitro results with chlorcycloguanil in Xai-xai show a high degree of heterogeneity and contrast strongly with results obtained in 1983 in the Gambia with a similar technique. When considered together with the poor results obtained recently in Burundi and Kenya with high dosages of chlorproguanil, this makes it doubtful whether chlorproguanil would retain any efficacy, if employed for a long period. Chloroquine suppression had no effect on parasite rates or densities in Maputo; this suggests that chloroquine 5 mg/kg is probably useless against Plasmodium falciparum with the level of chloroquine-resistance found in Maputo in 1985.

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