Every collector and every systematist must have wondered at some time or other why one species in the group which he is collecting or studying is common, and other species, close in every respect to the first, are extremely rare, although belonging perhaps to the same genus and distinguishable from the common species only by minor, or even microscopic details.
In the past four years the author had the opportunity of studying extensive material of the genus Chirothrips Haliday, 1836, collected in many parts of the world and sent in for identification. Some of the species examined have been recognized as new to science, others as too little known, and the males of three species as undescriptionbed. Besides these, two species, formerly put into synonymy, proved to be valid. Moreover, the material yields many new records worth publishing. Whereas four of the species have been descriptionbed or discussed in a preceding paper (zur Strassen, 1963), this contribution should be regarded as the second part of the study.
The thrips listed below and the new Xylaplothrips species descriptionbed in this paper were all collected in termite nests. The occurrence of Chirothrips hoodi Jacot-Guillarmod within these nests could be accidental; the termites may carry the thrips into their nests with the grass which they harvest. The new species may, however, be a true termitophile; it is brachypterous and its congeners are found in dark and mouldy places, even in a rats nest.
The tribe Cybisterini contains five genera of which two, Regimbartina Chatany and Cybister Curtis occur in Africa. Regimbartina is known from West Africa and the Congo whilst Cybister is almost world wide in its distribution. Australia, New Guinea and New Zealand are occupied by two closely allied endemic genera Spencerhydrus Sharp and Homeodytes Rï¿½gimbart, but Cybister species also occur. In South America the genus Cybister is largely replaced by the genus Megadytes Sharp.
This paper is presented as an attempt to clarify the status of species in the African genus Neurogomphus Karsch (1890). The species have been confused in the past and one in particular, N. martininus (Lacroix), has been an enigma since its descriptionption.
While numerous studies have been made upon the ecology, control and economic importance of the blue tick, Boophilus decoloratus (Koch), its behaviour has not been investigated to any great extent. Since Boophilus is a one-host tick, its success in finding a host will, to a considerable degree, be dependent upon the behaviour of the larvae. The present work was carried out with the aim of analyzing in the laboratory the responses of the unfed larvae into constitutive patterns in order to determine which environmental factors are of significance to the larvae in establishing themselves in such a position to facilitate attachment to their hosts and which are of value in allowing them to recognize a host as an object to which to attach.
Some forty years ago the grain stink-bug, Blissus diplopterus Dist., was found on South African peaches in the United Kingdom (Fryer et al., 1925). Its presence on fruit apparently excited no further attention until 1954, when live specimens were found on South African apricots and peaches in New York (Kriegler, 1959). The fruit had been subjected to normal pre-cooling and in transit refrigeration treatment conforming to requirements for the sterilization of Mediterranean fruit fly (U.S.D.A., 1957).
The presence of live adult snout-beetles, Phlyctinus callosus Boh., in South African export grapes reported by quarantine authorities in New York (Kriegler, 1957), necessitated fumigation before distribution, thus adding to costs and detracting from the shelf-life and economic value of the fruit. Another serious aspect of this and subsequent discoveries is the threat to expansion of the export market for grapes unless, of course, some satisfactory sterilization procedure could be evolved.
During my work on the taxonomy of the Coccoidea carried out at the Scott Agricultural Laboratories, Nairobi, a large amount of material from many parts of Africa was forwarded for identification by entomologists and farmers, or collected by me in Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar. Of the several species, old and new, thus accumulated in the departmental collection, only those belonging to the families Coccidae and Pseudococcidae have been thorougly reviewed in my papers published to date. Although the remainder are no longer available for critical study, numerous notes on most of them are at hand dealing with their identity, distribution and host plants.
Poecilmitis psyche spec. nov., pl. 1, figs. 1, 2, 5 and 6. male-Holotype: Forewing, upperside: whitish basal blue covers the whole forewing except the apex, where it reaches the proximal edge of three confluent post-discal black spots in areas 4,5 and 6. Between these spots and a broad black hindmarginal border, there is a narrow orange band, broken by dark veins. The orange extends to area 3, where the black spot is partially obscured by the basal blue. The hind marginal border tapers to a point between the end of vein 2 and the anal angle.
A number of interesting anomalies were encountered while making a survey of fleas of Ireland during the years 1963 and 1964. These are descriptionbed below. Although Smit (1947), who first published a paper concerning abnormal fleas, indicated the value to teratologists of studying flea monstrosities and also showed that systematics and phylogeny could gain from observation of abnormally developed specimens, few papers have so far been devoted to this subject.
The author has pleasure in presenting the results of his work on two large collections of Collembola, a part of the National Collection of Insects, Pretoria. The samples examined may be arranged in six groups according to their distribution
In my descriptionption of Aphanicercopsis amatolae Balinsky (1956) I mentioned a male specimen closely resembling the type specimens of A. amatolae, but differing in a few characters. At the time it was not possible to decide whether this specimen was an individual variation, or whether it represented a further undescriptionbed species. In 1962 I had the opportunity to do some collecting on a stream in the Amatola mountains and among the collected stoneflies there were several specimens of the aberrant type, as well as further specimens of the typical A. amatolae. As the aberrant specimens showed consistently the same characters as the specimen examined previously, and as there were no specimens with intermediate characters, it became evident that the aberrant type is in fact a separate species.