Lloyd (1959) reached two conclusions from his investigations into control techniques against the Red Locust. Firstly, that aerial spraying aided by the established ground scouting for hopper infestations (Scheepers, Eysell & Gunn, 1958) was superior to ground spraying. Secondly, that aerial scouting for hopper bands was impractical as it would be impossible to find and to destroy all the individual bands visible from the air when several outbreak areas contained large locust populations simultaneously. In 1960, ground scouting by control staff was stopped on the hypotheses that the aircraft pilots could find and destroy all locust aggregates, and that these aggregates contained all the locusts capable of forming swarms.
An understanding of the evolution of flight in insects requires a comprehension of its mechanics in the Dictyoptera which, among living insects, probably retain the most unspecialised condition of the flight motor since, with certain minor exceptions, all muscles likely to be involved in moving the wings are also concerned with moving the legs; that is, in Wilson's (1962) terminology, they are bi-functional. Such a system presents a problem both of how central nervous coordination is organised to achieve the two very different actions of walking and flying and also how, in evolutionary terms, this dual pattern could have arisen.
In the epidemiology of the mosquito-borne viruses, West Nile and Sindbis, in the highveld region of South Africa, available evidence indicates that Culex univittatus Theobald fulfils the rule of main vector in the feral transmission cycles of each virus. In a study of the ecology of these viruses one important approach is through the bionomics of C. univittatus, complementary studies being undertaken in the field and in the laboratory. An established laboratory colony is essential for the latter if extensive investigations are to be made.
The present investigation of the family Oppiidae is the first to be done on this group in the Republic of South Africa, and has been carried out on material obtained from the Orange Free State. New species are descriptionbed in the genera Amerioppia Hammer, 1961, Brachioppia Hammer, 1961 and Oppia C. L. Koch, 1936. One new subspecies is descriptionbed in the genus Oppia and known species of the genera Multioppia Hammer, 1961, Oppia and Oppiella Jacot, 1937 are recorded.
The following is a morphological investigation, supplemented by histological data, of the female reproductive system of the South African Citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio). Although studies of the female reproductive system have been made for several species of psylla (Witlaczil, 1885 cited by Imms, 1957; Awati, 1915; Weber, 1930) no work has been done on the reproductive system of T. erytreae. The present study has been made to fill this gap and it forms part of a wider biological study of this economically important insect.
The life histories of South African mantispids have not been documented and reports on mantispid biology are generally scarce. As stated by Milliron (1940) it is evident that prior to 1934 most of the information on the biology of this family was based on the classical experiments of Brauer (1869) who worked on a European species Mantispa styriaca Poda. A more recent paper on mantispids by McKeown & Mincham (1948) is an account of the biology of the Australian species Mantispa vittata Guerin. The reports of Main (1931). Eltringham (1932), Kaston (1938) and Hungerford (1939) do not advance our knowledge of these animals significantly,
In the past few years the psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio), has become increasingly important as a pest of citrus in areas of South Africa, particularly the Transvaal, both for its deleterious effect in stunting and deforming new growth and as a vector of the virus disease known as ""greening"" (McClean & Oberholzer, 1965 a and b; Schwarz, 1964, 1965). Because of its importance it is surprising that there are so few accounts of the biology of this insect. The first account was that of Van der Merwe (1923, republished with addenda 1941) which gives a descriptionption of the habits and life history of the psylla including length of development and approximate size of the various stages.
As a result of collecting Mallophaga from bird skins at the National Museum, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, three specimens of Ardeicola Clay were obtained and checked by Dr Th. Clay, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London. The present note comprises the descriptionption of a new species of this genus found on the African spoonbill (Platalea alba Scopoli) and a comparison with the closely related species, Ardeicola platalea (L.) from the spoonbill (P. leucorodia major Temminck & Schlegel). The new species is dedicated to Mr. R. H. Smithers, Director of the National Museum, Rhodesia, in recognition of his excellent pioneering work in Natural History.
The meat ant, Iridomyrmex detectus (Smith) builds its nests in the soil in many parts of Australia (McKeown, 1942). The workers usually construct mounds from which beaten tracks lead through the surrounding vegetation to trees infested with sapsucking insects. In the vicinity of Adelaide, the ants are usually very active during summer while the workers seldom appear on the soil surface during winter (Nel, 1965). In this area the summers are hot and dry while the winters are cool and wet. When the workers leave their nests on hot and dry days they go to a drier and hotter environment than that prevailing inside their nests and it is probably to be expected that variations in the humidity reactions of this species occur even within relatively short periods.
The dynamics of jumping in insects has recently been the subject of attention of several authors whose findings are reviewed by Hughes (1965). Analyses of jumping in insects and spiders have been based largely on high speed cine photography (up to 500 frames/sec.) using a synchronized flash source (Parry & Brown, 1959; Brown, 1965). Such apparatus is costly to purchase and operate and in this paper a simpler method for obtaining photographic records of jumping in grasshoppers is descriptionbed.
On the 12th January, 1967 while walking along the beach at Strandfontein, a small resort on the Atlantic coast about 15 miles west of Vredendal, I was struck by the occurrence of numerous dead bodies of Bagrada hilaris Burm. The bodies were scattered along the high water line. They were found over a distance of approximately two miles. For a quarter of a mile in the middle of this stretch the average number was estimated at sixty per yard. Apart from B. hilaris a few specimens of Spilostethus pandurus var. elegans Wolff (Fam. Lygaeidae) were also found.