n African Journal of Rhetoric - A critical perspective on political leadership and the led in the absurdist world of Tewfik Al-Hakim's

Volume 5, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1998-2054


Leadership is meant to affect positively the lives of the led (Nelson 2003: 51; Winston & Ryan 2008: 213; Greenleaf 2010: 89). Rhetoric is inextricably linked to the quest for leadership, for those who seek to become 'gods' in an allegorical state. They are also established as leaders based on prejudiced myths and the twisted set of criteria that constructs, for the led, a dubious psychology of honour, namely, ethnicity, religion, wealth and others. Tewfik al-Hakim's examines different types of leadership positions - family, political, sexual and religious - through the absurdist dramatic worlds of humans and animals (delineated in the text as cockroaches and ants). The work reflects and refracts the Egyptian government and people (the leaders and the led) as its immediate . It is a representation of undertakings within the Egyptian family, political, economic and religious leadership and followership landscapes which have global consequences. It reflects outcomes of flagrant abuse of rhetoric. The Archetypal Theory, which examines the human consciousness and actions from a 'collective' point of view, is utilized. The idea to do the right thing by the leaders for the people originates from a common human primordial pool. Therefore, the leaders and the led can live better lives. Al-Hakim advocates a change in the deeds and thoughts of the leaders. The led, and the leaders themselves, can have enhanced and meaningful lives through the use of effective communal rhetoric.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error