1887

oa Africa Insight - Country profile - Togo

Volume 17, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0256-2804

 

Abstract

Togo was a German protectorate from 1884 to 1914. It was divided between France, which acquired the eastern portion, now forming the present-day state of Togo, and the United Kingdom, which took over the smaller western portion and administered it as part of the Gold Coast. In a plebiscite held under UN supervision in 1956, British Togoland voted to unite with the Gold Coast, which became Ghana on independence in 1957. French Togo gained independence on 27 April 1960. The partition has been a source of unending difficulty for the two countries, because it split the main ethnic group, the Ewe, into two separate nations. The first few years of independence were turbulent and were marked by fierce competition between the country's two most prominent politicians, Sylvanus Olympio and Nicolas Grunitzky, who had founded two rival parties, the Comit� de I'unit� togolaise (Cut) and the Parti togolais du progr�s (PTP), in the late 1940s. In January 1963, Olympio, who had been president since independence, was assassinated during a coup led by the army, which handed power to Grunitzky. However, the army intervened again, in January 1967, to depose Grunitzky and set up a Committee of National Reconciliation, headed by Col Dadjo. Subsequently a new military regime, led by Col Etienne Eyad�ma (a northerner of Kabre peasant origin), dissolved all political parties and established a strong presidential system of government.

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/content/afrins/17/2/AJA02562804_859
1987-01-01
2019-11-19

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