n African Zoology - Analyses of venom spitting in African cobras (Elapidae : Serpentes)

Volume 40, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1562-7020
  • E-ISSN: 2224-073X
This article is unavailable for purchase outside of Africa



The venom spat by four spitting cobras <I>(Naja nigricollis, N. pallida, N. mossambica&lt;/I&gt; and <I>Hemachatus haemachatus)&lt;/I&gt; was caught using perspex plates. Densiometric analysis of the spat venom revealed low levels of variation in volume among successive spits. The dispersal patterns formed by the spat venom were divided into two basic classes, both of which were produced by all four species. The low levels of variation in venom volume, coupled with the variation in venom dispersal pattern, suggests a complexity to the regulation of venom flow in spitting cobras beyond simply neuromuscular control of the extrinsic venom gland.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error