n South African Journal of Agricultural Extension - Motivational needs assessment of extension agents of Abia State agricultural development programme, Abia State, Nigeria

Volume 34, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0301-603X
  • E-ISSN: 2413-3221


This study assessed the motivational needs of extension agents of Abia Agricultural Development Project. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select a total of 128 extension agents (EAs) from the State. Data on the effects of various needs / motivational theories (as Maslows' needs hierarchy theory, Alderfers' ERG theory, Reinforcement or law-of effect theory, Frederick Herzbergs' two-factor theory, and Douglas McGregors' theory X and theory Y), on the extension agents were collected through structured questionnaire from October - December 2004. Result analyses were achieved using tables and percentages. Research findings, revealed that greater percentage of the EAs are motivated towards the achievement of lower level physiological needs (93%), and security (72%) than higher level needs of ego (9%) and self actualization (6%). Such positive reinforcers as pay raises, and favourable performance evaluation motivated all the EAs at work. In addition, negative reinforcers as threat of sack, suspension, and query, motivated (93%) and (63%) respectively of the agents towards organizational goal achievement. The result further reveals that Theory Y attributes are more widespread among the extension agents than Theory X. It is recommended that the agents be allowed greater autonomy, responsibility, recognition and influence over decision making in matters relating to technology transfer to farmers.

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