n African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance - Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes, allele frequency, C-reactive protein, uric acid in female Zulu South African soccer, netball and Bulgarian soccer players

Volume 20, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1117-4315


Athletes of various ethnicities and gender have been genotyped for Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D (insertion/deletion) genetic variants. The I allele is related to endurance and D allele to power performance. The study purpose was to investigate the ACE genotypes and allele frequency and possible association with C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid (UA) in female soccer and netball players. Players from University of Zululand, RSA (n=16, age= 20.8±3.1years) and from National Sports Academy, Bulgaria (n=23, age 22.6±2.0 years) and control groups of 23 and 42 female students respectively were genotyped for ACE polymorphism. CRP and UA were measured at rest. - test, Fisher's exact test and Student - test were used for statistical analysis. No statistical differences were found between netball and soccer players. Null II genotype was found in Zulu players. They displayed higher 62.5% DD genotype and 82% D allele frequency compared to 40% DD genotype and 45% D allele in Bulgarians and to respective controls and ACE population genetic study. CRP and UA levels were within the normal range. CRP was higher in Zulu players (2.80±1.2 mg/l) compared to Bulgarians (1.37±1.03 mg/l), but lower than respective Zulu controls (4.0±1.36 mg/l). In Zulu players UA levels (217.5±60.0 µmol/l) were lower compared to 259.6±32.8 µmol/l in Bulgarians. Findings of null II ACE genotype, 62.5% DD genotype and 82% D allele frequency related to low CRP and UA, favour strong sprint/power performance in Zulu athletes. Bulgarian players showed 12% II and 67% ID ACE genotypes and 45% D and 55% I allele frequency.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error