n African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance - Mechanism of hyperglycaemia coexistence with hypertension : obesity interaction with insulin resistance approach

Volume 20, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 1117-4315


Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the two metabolic disorders with the highest mortality rates. They more often occur together. Their synergistic impact on health constitutes a more serious problem. Their coexistence mechanism is still a subject for research. The aim of the review was to investigate the mechanism(s) of coexistence of hyperglycaemia with hypertension, applying obesity interaction with insulin resistance approach, based on the existing literature. Original articles were targeted. Various word combinations were used to search for articles of relevance. Science Direct, Google Scholar and PubMed techniques of literature search were used. Out of 120 retrieved articles, 61 were found relevant. Research facts were analysed and synthesized, personal views and comments were made. Obesity and insulin resistance were found to run a 'relay race' in their existence, that is, obesity could cause insulin resistance and insulin resistance could also cause development of obesity. Obesity and insulin resistance, separately and in combination lead to diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Destruction of β cells of islets of Langerhans, stress on the endoplasmic reticulum, suppression of insulin cell receptors, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, change in blood adiponectin and leptin levels, elevated plasma free fatty acids, change in nutritional status from fetal-childhood into adulthood, birth weight and sedentary lifestyles, were found to be factors leading to development and interrelationship among metabolic disorders. Hyperglycaemia (DM) and HTN have a causal relationship. Either of the two metabolic disorders can lead to the other. Obesity and insulin resistance, separately and jointly, cause DM and HTN. The interaction of obesity with insulin resistance is the primary and main cause of hyperglycaemia coexistence with HTN. Therefore, obesity interaction with insulin resistance is the main mechanism in the coexistence of hyperglycaemia and hypertension.

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