1887

n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Onderweg na 'n Christelik-filosofiese analise van evolusie en evolusionisme : die bydrae van 'n konsekwent probleem-historiese metode : navorsings- en oorsigartikels (2)

Volume 56 Number 4-2
  • ISSN : 0041-4751

Abstract


This article intends to gain more clarity about the philosophical presuppositions underlying evolutionary theories and evolutionism as a worldview. In the light of the wide confusion and disagreement among Christians and Christian scholars it may be helpful toward a better understanding of these burning issues.
From about the middle of the previous century the evolutionary theory and evolutionistic worldview were hotly debated topics in the Netherlands as well as in South Africa. In 1963 the Christian philosopher, Dirk H. Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), delivered three guest lectures on this topic in South Africa, which have not yet been published in either English or Afrikaans. In spite of the fact that these three lectures could not cover the developments during the last fifty years, they are still relevant for the continuing debate today. Vollenhoven's special contribution was that he uncovered the basic ontological and anthropological presuppositions underlying evolution and evolutionism.
To enable a better understanding of Vollenhoven's analyses, the first section of this essay provides a brief overview of his approach - which is often complicated for non-philosophers - especially how his thetic-critical method is applied in his consistent problem-historical method of historiography. For the present issue the following four distinctions are important: (1) His division of Western intellectual thinking into four main , viz. pre-synthetic ancient philosophy, synthetic patristic and medieval thinking, post- or anti-synthetic Christian and anti-synthetic secular philosophy. (2) Vollenhoven's division of the history of philosophy according to different successive . Among these, positivistic rationalism is of special importance to understand the emergence of evolutionism. (3) His distinction according to his doctrine of modalities between the of matter, plants, animals and humans. (4) The difference between , purely cosmological (or structural) and (or genetic) thinking, of which only the first and the last can accommodate evolution and evolutionism.

Hierdie bydrae soek na helderheid oor die filosofiese grondslae of uitgangspunte van die hedendaagse steeds gewilde evolusieteorieë en evolusionistiese lewensvisies asook die verskil tussen evolusie of wording en evolusionisme. Op dié wyse wil dit ook vir Christene en Christendenkers, onder wie daar nog steeds groot verwarring oor die aangeleentheid heers, van hulp wees. Met die oog daarop word drie nog ongepubliseerde lesings oor die evolusionisme wat die Christelike wysgeer, Dirk H. Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), in 1963 by die destydse Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir CHO gelewer het hier bekend gestel en ontleed. Om sy filosofiese analise goed te kan begryp, word ter inleiding eers die hoofkontoere van sy konsekwent probleem-historiese metode uiteengesit.


Die eerste hoofafdeling handel daarna oor vyf filosofiese voorvereistes vir die ontstaan van die evolusionisme in die algemeen, naamlik 'n genetiese denkwyse, vooruitgangsgeloof, 'n positivistiese en monistiese filosofie asook die aanvaarding van kontinuïteit tussen ten minste twee van die ryke van stof, plant, dier en mens. Die tweede afdeling toon aan hoe verskillende ontiese en antropologiese uitgangspunte tot 'n verskeidenheid evolusionismes lei. Onder hulle was ook dié van Hitler se rassistiese nasionaal-sosialisme. Die derde hoofafdeling bied Vollenhoven se eie standpunt teenoor die voorafgaande. Hy aanvaar wel evolusie of transformasie binne dieselfde ryk, maar nie evolusionisme of transformisme wat die ryke sou transendeer nie. Vanuit sy eie filosofie bied hy ook nuwe insigte oor die verskil tussen die stryd om bestaan en aanpassing.

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/content/akgees/2016/Issue-4_2/EJC199923
2016-12-15
2019-08-21

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