1887

n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Die subjektiewe ervaring van eensaamheid by ouer dames - toepassing van die Mmogo-metode™ : navorsings- en oorsigartikels

Volume 50, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0041-4751

Abstract

Die Suid-Afrikaanse ouer bevolking groei toenemend. Statistiek Suid-Afrika se 2001-sensus dui aan dat 7,3 % van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking op daardie tydstip reeds ouer as 60 jaar was (Government Gazette 2006). Boonop het hierdie syfer, volgens die Departement Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling (Department of Social Development 2005) tussen 1996 en 2001 'n toename van 4% getoon. Iets wat onder andere toegeskryf word aan meer sterftes as gevolg van MIV / Vigs in die ouerdomsgroepe 0-14 en 15-39 jaar, maar wat ook te danke is aan verbeterde mediese sorg (Statistics South Africa 2007).


Die meeste ouer persone staan voortdurend voor die uitdaging om aan te pas by die werklikheid daarvan dat hulle liggaams- en intellektuele funksies afneem, asook by interpersoonlike verliese - wat dikwels 'n herdefiniëring van rolle impliseer (Giles 2005). Interpersoonlike verliese het dikwels 'n groter impak op ouer vroue omdat hulle tradisioneel nouer bande met hul kinders en vriende het en oor groter sosiale netwerke beskik as ouer mans (Rokach 2007). Uit Rokach (2007) se navorsing het byvoorbeeld geblyk dat ouer vroue veral hoër vlakke van eensaamheid ervaar as mans. Meer vrouens as mans staan hul eggenote aan die dood af en dit veroorsaak noodsaaklike aanpassings by nuwe lewenswyses, terwyl dit terselfdertyd ingrypende implikasies inhou vir die manier waarop hulle hulle sosiale rolle vervul. Indien weduwees nie genoegsaam by veranderende lewenswyses kan aanpas nie, verhoog dit die risiko van sosiale isolasie, wat eensaamheid in die hand kan werk (Holmén & Furukawa 2002).
Eensaamheid word gedefinieer as voortdurende emosionele belewenisse wat vervreemding, misverstande of verwerping insluit. Persone wat eensaam is, het 'n behoefte aan gepaste en betekenisvolle verhoudings waarbinne interaksie kan plaasvind en emosionele ervarings gedeel kan word (Donaldson & Watson 1996; Kaufman & Elder 2003; Paul, Ayis & Ebrahim 2006; Savikko, Rotasolo, Tilvis, Strandberg & Pitkälä 2005). Dit is belangrik om eensaamheid by ouer persone te bestudeer, aangesien dit lewenskwaliteit beperk en 'n swak prognose in hoë ouderdom het (Chalise, Siato, Takahasi & Kai, 2006; Savikko et al., 2005). In 'n studie deur Wilkonson en Pierce (1997) word aangedui dat eensaamheid 'n verband met depressie toon en dat depressiewe ouer persone geneig is om te vereensaam.


Loneliness is a threat to quality of life and indicates a poor prognosis during aging. A qualitative, phenomenological study among white Afrikaans-speaking older women was conducted to explore their experience of loneliness.
The research was undertaken at a service centre for elderly persons where cognitively sound older women voluntarily participated in the research. Fifteen women were purposefully selected to obtain their experience of loneliness via their own visual projections (the Mmogo method™), a focus group discussion, individual interviews, as well as personal journal entries. The Mmogo method™ provides valuable information about socially constructed aspects that are often difficult to verbalise. Various guidelines were followed to ensure the trustworthiness of the study, such as triangulation of data, member checking, an extended period in the field and the inclusion of rich descriptions.
Two central themes emerged from the thematic data analysis, being causes of loneliness (including multiple losses at a personal level as well as interpersonal losses; changed family relations and a downsized living world) and strategies to deal with loneliness (such as the actualising of religion, reminiscing on the past, an active involvement in life and denial).
The most important finding of this research is that older white Afrikaans speaking women experience an intimate loss of the "self" because their identity is strongly associated with the specific roles and functions defined by the socio-cultural context in which they were socialised. These functions and roles emphasised the ultimate authority of the man. Women did not develop an independent identity that could continue once the prescribed traditional roles no longer applied.
Practical steps are suggested in order to support elderly women to process the multiple losses, to question socially acceptable roles and functions of women, and to create independent interests. Further studies could possibly be extended to older women in other cultures.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/akgees/50/1/EJC20182
2010-03-01
2019-08-24

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error