n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - 'n Algemene tipologie van leksikografiese etikette - : navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 51, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 0041-4751


Hierdie artikel stel 'n tipologie van leksikografiese etikette met die fokus op standaard tweetalige woordeboeke voor. Hoewel 'n aantal tipologieƫ in die literatuur voorkom wat op die oppervlak grootliks ooreenstem, is daar onenigheid ten opsigte van die dieper klassifikasies. Die literatuur toon dat hierdie stand van sake die gevolg is van algemene verwarring en 'n gebrek aan konsensus oor die gebruik van leksikografiese etikette en die pragmatiese parameters wat hulle verteenwoordig, wat veroorsaak word deur die afwesigheid van 'n teoretiese basis vir hulle klassifikasie en standaardisering. Die doel van hierdie artikel is juis om sodanige teoretiese basis te skep op grond waarvan 'n tipologie ontwikkel kan word.

This article develops and presents a typology of lexicographical labels with the focus on standard bilingual dictionaries. Generally, a lexicographical label can be described as a meta-entry in a dictionary article which indicates to the dictionary user that the entry it is addressed to represents an element of some form of marked language usage, for example informal language, jargon, geographical variation and temporal variation. Lexicographical labels contextualise their addresses in terms of actual language usage and therefore provide important pragmatic guidance to the dictionary user, thereby promoting communicative success. They have a long history and have not only become a lexicographical tradition, but also an indispensable instrument of description for the lexicographer. This article takes cognisance of an initial definition of lexicographical labels, the fact that a number of typologies of lexicographical labels have been proposed and the concept of markedness as it pertains to language usage. With regard to existing typologies, it is noted that while they are more or less similar at the superficial level, there are significant differences in deeper classifications and subclassifications. The literature suggests that this is the result of general confusion and a lack of consensus about the use of lexicographical labels and the pragmatic parameters that they represent, which is in turn caused by the absence of a theoretical basis for their classification and standardisation. Hence, the initial definition and the concept of markedness represents the point of departure for developing precisely such a theoretical basis. The concept of markedness is extended to lexicographical markedness, since what is regarded as linguistically marked is not necessarily marked for lexicographical purposes. A different set of norms have to be applied when deciding if a source or target language entry should be labelled. This implies that the linguistic markedness of a lexical item does not presuppose its labelling in a dictionary. The norms which should be applied to determine lexicographical markedness, and as such define lexicographical labels, include (i) the dictionary type, as a product of the purpose, function(s), typical usage situation and target user profile of the dictionary, which includes referential equivalence and translingually transposed lexicographical markedness in the case of a bilingual dictionary; (ii) certain linguistic criteria that apply to linguistic markedness, like usage restrictions pertaining to specific domains as well as relevant formal and stylistic criteria; (iii) the dictionary-specific context.

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