1887

n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Die effek van intervensie op okulêre motoriese beheerfunksies en visueel-motoriese integrasiestatus van 6- tot 8-jarige leerders met ADHD - : navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 52, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 0041-4751

Abstract

Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of okulêre motoriese beheer en visueel-motoriese integrasie van jong leerders met ADHD sal verbeter na deelname aan 'n 9-week okulêre motoriese intervensieprogram. Sewe en veertig leerders (25 seuns en 22 dogters) met 'n gemiddelde ouderdom van 6.95 jaar (sa=0.69) is verdeel in drie groepe: 'n eksperimentele groep met ADHD (n=20) wat deelgeneem het aan die intervensieprogram; 'n kontrolegroep wat bestaan het uit leerders met ADHD (n=10) en 'n groep sonder ADHD (n=17). Die Sensoriese Invoersiftingsmeetinstrument en die "Quick Neurological Screening Test II" (QNST-II) is gebruik om die okulêre motoriese beheerstatus van die leerders te bepaal, terwyl die "Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration 4" gebruik is om visueel-motoriese integrasie te assesseer. Kruistabellering is gebruik om verbetering van okulêre motoriese beheer te bepaal, wat matige verbetering ten opsigte van die ernstige probleme met visuele navolging en konvergensiedivergensie by die intervensiegroep getoon het. Afhanklike t-toetsing is verder gebruik om die intervensie-effek met betrekking tot visueel-motoriese integrasie, motoriese koördinasie en visuele persepsie te ontleed, waaruit betekenisvolle verbetering (p<0.05; d=0.38) in die motoriese koördinasie van die intervensiegroep geblyk het.


The American Psychiatric Association's (APA) (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) describes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a persistent pattern of attention deficit or hyperactivity that accrues more often as the typically expected behaviour of an individual's development level and age. Mercugliano (1999) describes ADHD as levels of attention deficit, with or without impulsive and over-active behaviour that is not within the accepted norms of each age group, where the behaviour occurs in different settings and causes problems with functional adapting.
The worldwide incidence of ADHD is reported to be between 3% and 7% (Elia et al. 1999; APA 2000). A high percentage of learners with learning problems (25%-80%) also exhibits symptoms of ADHD, which is a possible indication that one problem can lead to the other and vice versa (Cantwell & Baker 1991; Smith 2001). Studies show that learners with ADHD experienced ocular motor control delays as well as problems with their motor development (George et al. 2005; Papavasiliou et al. 2007). If visual problems are experienced because of ineffective ocular motor control functions, problems can also be expected with binocular fusion, visual tracking, ocular alignment, convergence-divergence, fixation, posture, reading habits and visual awareness, which usually go hand in hand with academic-, gross motor- and sport related problems (Auxter et al. 1993; Desrochers 1999; Cheatum & Hammond 2000).
Improving visual problems related to misalignment of the eyes, are often approached using binocular vision exercises. Auxter et al. (1993) define binocular exercises as a practice and learning process to help improve visual perception and/or coordination of the two eyes for more effective binocular fusion. Vision therapy can further be described as an individualised intervention that is designed to improve the binocular system, ocular motor control (convergence, divergence, accommodation, visual tracking, ocular lining and fixation), visual processing, visual-motor skills and/or perceptual-cognitive deviations (Orfield et al. 2001; Barrett 2009). However, the essence of vision therapy is to improve eye muscle function.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/akgees/52/4/EJC129918
2012-12-01
2019-10-20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error