1887

n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - 'n Sonderlinge wysgerig-estetiese verbindingslyn : Bilderdijk, Dooyeweerd en Malherbe

Volume 54, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0041-4751

Abstract


In his astonishing sonnet, , Bilderdijk captures the main contours of the philosophical legacy of the West, from ancient Greek philosophy up to his own position in 1786. He even anticipated key elements of the reformational philosophical movement of the 20th century in the Netherlands. These periods of philosophy embody reflection on perennial problems, such as unity and diversity and constancy and change, accompanied by theoretical stances such as atomism, holism, realism and nominalism. Dooyeweerd has shown that particular philosophical notions acquired diverse philosophical interpretations dependent upon the (supra-theoretic) basic motives guiding and directing theoretical thought. The concepts of and , for example, obtained a meaning in Greek philosophy that differs from their meaning in modern (post-Renaissance) philosophy. The same applies to the concept of substance, a concept that dominated Greek-medieval philosophy but then, within modern philosophy, had to give way to the concept of . However, the latter was now embedded in the dialectical tension between (nature) and . Inspired by a thought-experiment of Galileo (1638) the great Enlightenment philosopher, Immanuel Kant, had to restrict the initial science ideal to sensory phenomena and the categories of understanding in order to open up a domain of practical freedom. Yet within the domain of sensibility Kant elevated human understanding to be the formal law-giver of nature. His idea of freedom was negative, in the sense that it is supposed to be free from natural necessity (causality). Thus he confused the underlying conditions of freedom with the nature of freedom. Freedom is only possible within the normed possibilities of human beings leaving room both for norm conformative and antinormative actions. Informed by the idea of being a law unto oneself (autonomy), Kant introduces two law-givers: understanding as law-giver for theoretical knowledge in a possible experience and reason as law-giver for (practical) freedom.

Deur oorsigtelik na 'n aantal wysgerige grondprobleme en denkstrominge te kyk, word die weg berei om die besondere posisie van Bilderdijk se sonnet, , te waardeer - enersyds oorspan hierdie sonnet die hoofkontoere van die geskiedenis van die filosofie en andersyds gryp dit vooruit na een van die geesteskinders van die verskynsel, die Nederlandse , met name die reformatories-wysgerige beweging wat in aansluiting by die gedagte-wêreld van Abraham Kuyper 'n nuwe werklikheidsiening aan die begin van die 20ste eeu ontwikkel het. Vanaf die Stoïsynse oorsaaklikheidsgedagte, via die middeleeuse (neo-Platoniese) problematiek van emanasie en die aard van 'n substansie, tot by die empiristiese en transendentaal-filosofiese oriëntering van Kant loop die sonnet uit op die antwoord dat alles van God afhang en dat die wêreld sy stem is wat ons oproep om hom te vrees. Die verdieping wat Herman Dooyeweerd aan hierdie erfenis gegee het, is deur D.F. Malherbe sowel in wetenskaplike as in digterlike vorm verder gevoer. Die afwysing van die moderne idee dat die mens self-wet-stellend (outonoom) is, hang saam met die herontdekking van die menslike selfheid, sy hart in Bybelse sin, as die religieuse wortel van die mens se bestaan. Benewens 'n verwysing na 'n wysgerig-estetiese artikel, word hoofmomente van 'n gedig uit die laaste digbundel van D.F. Malherbe toegelig. Hierdie gedig "Ek" kom uit .

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/content/akgees/54/1/EJC151888
2014-01-01
2019-08-21

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