n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Filosoferen in de klas : een analyse van filosofische werkvormen - : navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 54, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 0041-4751


Great philosophers such as Plato, Descartes, Kant, and Wittgenstein have indicated that teaching philosophy can focus both on learning philosophy as well as on actively philosophizing. The latter activity can be called doing philosophy, to contrast it with learning philosophy. Dutch philosophical education in secondary classroom has as an important aim to learn philosophy by doing philosophy. Thus in classroom teaching philosophical skills (namely doing philosophy) are linked to substantive philosophical domains. Examples of these domains are philosophical anthropology, ethics, social philosophy, theory of knowledge and philosophy of science. Doing philosophy is about skills such as (1) selecting, transforming, structuralizing, and interpreting material; (2) analyzing; (3) testing; (4) producing criticism; and (5) reflecting. The so-called typically philosophical part is reflecting on the terms and (logical) argumentation used and the problematizing or questioning of hypotheses and/or preconceptions. In this paper we concentrate on the questions what doing philosophy in the classroom is and which philosophical exercises can be used. A philosophical exercise can be described as a complex standardized manner of doing philosophy, in which philosophical knowledge and skills are combined to exchange thoughts by paying explicit attention to philosophical (meta)concepts in a lifelike context in such a manner that a person or several persons first realize that they are actually ignorant and subsequently continue to inquire on a metalevel with the aim of constructing a true belief. To foster doing philosophy by students various philosophical exercises can be used in classroom teaching, such as writing a philosophical essay, philosophical reading of primary texts, using classroom talk, doing a thought experiment, using the Socratic method, giving a speech, organizing a symposium, role-playing, discussing a dilemma, and having a debate. We provide an overview of 30 exercises which can be used for teaching philosophy, that we classify in three approaches to doing philosophy. The three approaches have in common that they all relate to truth-finding. The first approach, doing philosophy as connective truth-finding or communicative action, is illustrated by a classroom talk and by a discussion of the Socratic method. Second, doing philosophy as test-based truth-finding, is illustrated by a discussion of community of philosophical inquiry. Third, doing philosophy as juridical debate, judging truth-value and concluding judgment (truth value analysis) is illustrated by a discussion of philosophical debate. We discuss relations between, on the one hand, these three approaches, and, on the other hand, theoretical, practical and pedagogical elements of the definition of doing philosophy in the classroom.

Het schoolvak filosofie in het voortgezet onderwijs in Nederland kent als één van zijn kerndoelen leerlingen filosofie te leren door leerlingen te leren zelf te filosoferen. In de filosofielessen worden zodoende filosofische vaardigheden (filosoferen) gekoppeld aan kennisinhoud. Bij filosofie leren gaat het om een aantal inhoudelijke domeinen, zoals wijsgerige antropologie, ethiek, sociale filosofie, kennisleer en wetenschapsfilosofie. Bij filosoferen gaat het om vaardigheden als (i) materiaal selecteren, transformeren, structureren en interpreteren, (ii) analyseren, (iii) toetsen, (iv) kritiek maken, en (v) reflecteren. Dit artikel beoogt een bijdrage te leveren aan hoe je dat zelf filosoferen nu onderwijst. We doen een voorstel voor een werkdefinitie van zelf filosoferen als filosofische werkvorm in de klas en stellen een analysekader voor (drie patronen van waarheidsonderzoek). We beschrijven 30 filosofische werkvormen die we in de literatuur vonden en gebruiken de werkdefinitie en de drie patronen om deze werkvormen te analyseren.

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