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n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Die onderrig van Afrikaanse woordeskat en variëteite vanuit 'n inklusiewe taalgeskiedkundige perspektief : navorsings- en oorsigartikels : Afrikaanse kaleidoskoop - bestekopname en standpunte

Volume 54, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 0041-4751

Abstract


This article focuses on the teaching of the (borrowed) vocabulary of Afrikaans (in the Intermediate Phase) and the regional varieties of Afrikaans (in the Senior Phase) on the basis of an inclusive historical language perspectiveThe seventeenth-century VOC ("Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie") sea route between the Netherlands and Batavia led to the establishment of the Cape maritime supply station in 1652. This refreshment station became the meeting point for the languages, cultures and religions of three continents (Titus 2007:2). This unique coming together of divergent (mainly Western and Arabic) language groups required a common means of communication and this led to the evolution of Afrikaans. It is a modern language born and developed on the African continent but with clear European (Western), Arabic (Eastern) and African origins. The VOC's objectives in establishing a supply station did not include the establishment of a colony or by extension, a new language. However, most of the Europeans wanted to settle at the Cape permanently and linguistic contact between them, the indigenous Khoi and the slaves imported from the East formed the basis for the origin of Afrikaans. Ongoing contact and interaction led to the development of specific socio-cultural and - linguistic circumstances that nourished the further evolution of Afrikaans:
  1. The European colonisers (the rulers in this situation) had great difficulty in mastering the indigenous Khoi languages. The colonised Khoi (the subordinates in this situation) therefore had no choice but to learn to communicate in Dutch.
  2. The settlers initially consisted mainly of men, which led to the forming of relationships between the men and slave and Khoi women. This implies that there was a need to communicate, which resulted in acculturation.
  3. The assimilation and integration of the Khoi and the imported slaves into (Western) Cape society played a role with regard to the socio-cultural and -linguistic aspects of the Cape's multilingual and -cultural society.

Afrikaans is therefore the communal creation of Europeans and non-Europeans, of white and black, of rulers and slaves (Giliomee 2004:42). It is in essence Dutch; however, the role played by slaves and the Khoi in its beginnings (the start of colonisation in 1652), must be taken into account and acknowledged (Du Plessis H. 1994:122). The vocabulary and the modern variety of Afrikaans are proof of its evolution through language contact since the initial contact between the various language groups at the Cape during the seventeenth century. The meeting of and interaction between three groups (Western Europeans, imported slaves from the East and indigenous Khoi) allowed a unique language-contact situation to develop. This situation has been underestimated in the past because of the socio-political (apartheid) circumstances in South Africa. It suited the socio-political philosophy of the previous apartheid government to focus on the European origins of Afrikaans, although Afrikaans is a language in which the sounds of Dutch, Malay, Creole-Portuguese, as well as Indian, Arabic, European and African languages can be heard. It became a new language for a new nation formed out of the melting pot of racial groupings in South Africa.

Hierdie artikel fokus op die onderrig van die (geleende) woordeskat van Afrikaans (Intermediêre Fase) en die streeksvariëteite van Afrikaans (Senior Fase) aan die hand van 'n inklusiewe taalhistoriese perspektief. In breë trekke behels die inklusiewe ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis van Afrikaans roetes van verskillende groepe mense oor oseane en kontinente heen wat aan die suidpunt van Afrika ontmoet het. Danksy dié (onwaarskynlike) samekoms van Europese setlaars, inheemse Khoi en slawe uit onder andere Asië ontwikkel 'n taal in Afrika met 'n penwortel in Wes-Europa, maar met duidelike wortels in Asië en Afrika (Hugo 2009; Raidt 1991). Pogings van die gekoloniseerde Khoi en ingevoerde slawe om Nederlands (taal van die koloniseerders) aan die vroeë Kaap te praat, het aanleiding gegee tot die ontstaan van die historiese Westelike en Suidelike Afrikaanse aanleerdersvariëteite van die Khoi en van die slawe. Hierdie aanleerdersvariëteite het belangrike kulturele en taalbydraes tot die ontwikkeling van die Afrikaanse woordeskat gelewer wat sterk in moderne Afrikaans na vore kom. Kennis van en insig in hierdie "ryk en sterk erfenis" moet volgens Boesak (2007) "ontdek, erken en omarm" word, aangesien die miskenning van "gekleurde" bydraes in die ontwikkeling van Afrikaans tot in die onlangse verlede persepsies verstewig het dat Afrikaans slegs 'n "wit" herkoms het (Carstens 2013). Om verhoudings tussen Afrikaanssprekendes én ander Suid-Afrikaners te verbeter, behoort die eksklusiewe weergawe van die Afrikaanse taalgeskiedenis met die inklusiewe ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis van Afrikaans (wat die bydraes van groepe uit Wes-Europa, Afrika en Asië in die ontstaan van Afrikaans insluit) vervang te word. Die aangewese vertrekpunt daarvoor is die skoolgaande jeug van Suid-Afrika.

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/content/akgees/54/4/EJC163389
2014-12-01
2019-08-23

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