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n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Differensiasie : die basis van samelewingsvryhede - : navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 55, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0041-4751
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Abstract

Hierdie artikel verg enersyds begripsonderskeidinge en andersyds 'n oorsigtelike beeld van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings. Waar ding-begrippe in die Grieks-Middeleeuse intellektuele erfenis prominent was (die vraag na die konkrete -heid van die dinge), sou die moderne ontwikkelinge sedert die Renaissance al meer klem op funksie-begrippe plaas (die vraag na die danigheid van dinge). In die lig van hierdie onderskeiding blyk dit dat die term 'n funksiebegrip is wat ten nouste verband hou met die multifunksionele aard van lewende dinge - wat tewens 'n eenheid in die menigvuldigheid organiese aktiwiteite daarvan vertoon (getalsfunksie), en wat 'n samehangende (organiese) geheel met integrale dele vorm wat in voortdurende wisselwerking met mekaar staan (die ruimtelike, kinematiese en fisiese funksies). Biotiese groei omvat beide die vertakking (differensiasie) van lewensfunksies en die saambind (integrasie) daarvan. Besinning oor die aard van die menslike samelewing stuit onvermydelik op die van hierdie biotiese terme (differensiasie en integrasie). Dit gebeur spesifiek wanneer van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings gepraat word. Waar die individuele mens grootliks in ongedifferensieerde samelewings opgaan (as deel van 'n groter geheel), bied die langsame kultuur-historiese proses van samelewingsdifferensiasie eventueel ruimte vir die uitkristallisering van die staat as regsverband naas en in onderskeiding van 'n menigvuldigheid niestaatlike samelewingsvorme - en tegelyk tree daar 'n persoonlike vryheidsfeer na vore waarin die persoonlike ruimte van individue onderken word afgesien van enige lewensvorm-verbintenis waarin die mens as deel van 'n groter geheel mag optree. Dit lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat differensiasie inderdaad die basis van ons publieke vryhede, persoonlike vryhede en samelewingsvryhede vorm.


Die terme wat in die titel van hierdie artikel vervat is, is ongewyfeld bekend uit ons alledaagse spraakgebruik. Sodra daar egter nader rekenskap gegee wil word van bepaalde konnotasies waarin dit ook in 'n filosofiese besinning gebruik kan word, blyk dit spoedig dat dit nie so 'n eenvoudige taakstelling is nie.


A concept unities a multiplicity of identified features into a logical-analytical unity and it presupposes the universality of each one of these properties. On the basis of a conceptual analysis of the nature and seat of the term differentiation, analogical usages of it guided our understanding of the difference between undifferentiated and differentiated societies. Whereas the Greek-Medieval legacy mainly focused on thing concepts (captured in the substance concept), the modern era (since the Renaissance) increasingly gave prominence to function concepts. The term differentiation does not refer to a thing concept, but to a function concept. When a living entity grows an increasing complexity emerges because its organic activities while, at the same time these differentiated activities are also integrated into the biotic unity of such a living entity. As a biological function concept the term differentiation is intimately connected to the multifunctional nature of living entities. Every living entity is a unity amidst a multiplicity of organic activities (quantitative function), which is an enduring and cohering organic whole (totality) in which all the organic parts are constantly interacting. Biotic growth therefore encompasses both the differentiation of the organic activities of a living entity and the integration of these activities. Although these biotic features are unique their functional meaning only comes to full expression in the coherence between the biotic aspect of living entities and those non-biotic functions within which they appear as analogies of the original meaning of the biotic mode. The differentiation of within sentient creatures (animals and humans) shows that within the sensitive aspect an analogy of biotic differentiation and integration is found. The logical-analytical abilities of human beings also give shelter to these biotic analogies, reflected in speaking of logical-analytical differentiation and integration. The normed nature of logical-analytical activities highlight another peculiar feature of the post-sensitive aspects, namely that one can distinguish between analogies on the norm-side of these aspects, correlated with analogies at the factual side. The uniqueness of every number in the succession of (natural) numbers serves as the foundation for the logical principles of identity and non-contradiction, enabling the distinction between logically sound and illogical concepts and arguments.

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/content/akgees/55/2/EJC172358
2015-06-01
2019-08-21

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