1887

n Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie - Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era : research and review article

Volume 25, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0254-3486
  • E-ISSN: 2222-4173

Abstract

In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse), geneesmiddels en chirurgie - laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie 'n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente) beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk 'n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islamgeneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra. End

<B>Surgery in the Graeco-Roman era</B> <BR>In the Graeco-Roman era medical treatment characteristically consisted of regimen (diet and a healthy lifestyle), medicaments and surgery - the latter being reserved for those cases in which regimen and medicaments had failed. Evidence of primitive surgery dates back to the Bronze Age, and the Homeric epics describe surgical treatment of war wounds with frequent intervention of the gods. With the arrival of empiric medicine in the 5th century BC, surgery featured prominently in the Hippocratic Corpus by way of excellent contributions on head and orthopaedic surgery in particular. Alexandrian medicine (late 4th century) facilitated surgical development through the knowledge of anatomy and physiology gained from human dissection. Greek medicine brought a much improved standard of surgery to the Roman era (2nd century BC). Physicians were still expected to be proficient in all three modalities of medical practice (above), but surgery was now held in higher regard and specialisation in fields such as eye diseases, obstetrics and women's diseases, bladder ailments, mouth and throat surgery developed. Military medicine, well organised in Roman times, brought experience in trauma surgery, and procedures penetrating the abdomen and thoracic cavities were no longer uniformly fatal. Veterinary surgery came into being. The first significant surgical textbook after the Hippocratic Corpus was compiled by Celsus in the 1st century AD. From the 3rd century onwards surgery stagnated and the scientific language gradually changed from Greek to Latin. The surgical expertise of the era was carried into the Middle Ages and later predominantly by Islamic physicians. End

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/content/aknat/25/2/EJC20381
2006-06-01
2020-08-07

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