1887

n Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie - Die hoogs-onversadigde vetsure : fisiologiese rol en kliniese moontlikhede : research and review article

Volume 25, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 0254-3486
  • E-ISSN: 2222-4173

Abstract

<B>The highly unsaturated fatty acids : physiological role and clinical possibilities</B> <BR>Fatty acids play a very important role in human physiology. Except for the fact that fatty acids in stored triglycerides can be used for energy production, fatty acids from dietary lipids are transported in plasma and built into various cellular structures. The fatty acid profile of cell membrane phospholipids plays a determining role in the cell membrane in that it influences fluidity, receptor function and the type of eicosanoids that can be synthesised from it. Fatty acids also have highly differentiated inputs in cellular transduction mechanisms and regulation of gene transcription. In this, the steric conformation plays a large role: the straight-chain saturated and trans-fatty acids, when compared with the unsaturated fatty acids with progressively more bent chains, lead to a variety of mechanisms that have less positive effects on our health. In this regard, the two most important families of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the so-called omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, also lead to different effects. Changes in the pattern of dietary fatty acid intake through the ages have lead to an increased intake of saturated, trans- and omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids. Clinical trials during the past twenty years have shown that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids can lead to an improvement of the symptoms of certain lifestyleassociated disorders. Atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young children, certain types of cancer, osteoporosis in the elderly and some dermatological disorders are amongst the conditions that can be addressed in this manner.

Vetsure speel 'n uiters belangrike rol in die fisiologie van die mens. Afgesien daarvan dat vetsure in gestoorde trigliseriede gebruik word vir energieverskaffing, word vetsure vanaf dieetlipiede in plasma vervoer en ingebou in verskeie sellulêre strukture. Die vetsuurprofiel van selmembraanfosfolipiede is bepalend by die funksie van die selmembraan daarin dat dit vloeibaarheid, reseptorfunksie en ook die tipe eikosanoïede wat daaruit gesintetiseer kan word, beïnvloed. Vetsure lewer verder ook hoogs gedifferensieerde insette in sellulêre seintransduksieprosesse en regulering van geentranskripsie. Die steriese konformasie van vetsure speel 'n groot rol hierin: die reguitketting versadigde en trans-vetsure, in vergelyking met die onversadigde vetsure met progressief meer geboë kettings, lei tot 'n verskeidenheid meganismes wat minder positiewe effekte vir ons gesondheid inhou. Die twee belangrikste families van die poli-onversadigde vetsure, naamlik die omega-3 en omega-6 vetsuurgroepe, lei ook tot verskillende effekte in dié verband. Veranderings in die patroon van dieetvetsuurinname deur die eeue het gelei tot 'n verhoogde inname van versadigde, trans- en omega-6 vetsure, relatief tot omega-3 vetsure. Kliniese proewe het in die afgelope twintig jaar bewys dat dieetaanvulling met omega-3 vetsure tot verbetering in die simptome van 'n hele aantal toestande wat as leefstylgebonde beskou word, kan lei. Aterosklerose, vetsug, diabetes mellitus tipe 2, depressie, skisofrenie, Alzheimer-siekte, aandagtekorthiperaktiwiteitsversteuring in jong kinders, sekere tipes kanker, osteoporose in bejaardes en sekere dermatologiese siektes tel onder die versteurings wat op dié manier aangespreek kan word.

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/content/aknat/25/4/EJC20391
2006-12-01
2020-07-13

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