1887

n Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie - Tuberkulose in die antieke tyd - : navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 27, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 0254-3486
  • E-ISSN: 2222-4173

Abstract


In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows' milk) may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest pathognomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteoarchaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott's disease of the spine) in the skeleton of an Egyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC). Suggestive but not conclusive evidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis, as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint.

Menslike tuberkulose dateer waarskynlik terug na die Neolitiese Tydperk toe die mens deur besmette makgemaakte beeste aangesteek is. Dit blyk uit mediese geskrifte van oud-China, Indië en Mesopotamië dat 'n soortgelyke siekte reeds teen 3 000 v.C. herken is, maar die eerste onomwonde argeologiese bewys van tuberkulose (werwelkolom-aantasting) dateer uit Egipte van ongeveer 1 000 v.C. Alhoewel die woord "tering" in die Ou Testament voorkom, is dit onseker presies wat die siekte was wat toe genoem, en later as "tering" vertaal is. Die woord ftise (), aanduidend van tuberkulose in antieke tye, het aanvanklik gedui op enige toestand wat erge uittering veroorsaak het. Vanaf die 5de eeu v.C. is dit gekoppel aan 'n spesifieke siekte, tuberkulose. In hierdie studie word Klassieke beskrywings van ftise in die antieke tyd vanaf Hippokrates (5de eeu v.C.) tot Caelius Aurelianus (5de eeu n.C.) vergelyk. Die siektebeeld, gebaseer op longklagtes en uittering, het besonder konstant gebly, alhoewel behandeling met tyd progressief meer aktief en kompleks geraak het. Die antieke beskrywings kan inpas by chroniese long-tuberkulose, maar sluit waarskynlik ook 'n reeks ander veretterende longsiektes in. In die Hippokratiese Korpus is daar suggestiewe bewys dat ekstra-pulmonale tuberkulose-aantastings soos Pott se siekte en skrofula ook erken is, maar nie aan ftise toegeskryf is nie.

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/content/aknat/27/4/EJC20440
2008-12-01
2019-08-23

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