1887

n Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie - Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine : oorspronklike navorsing

Volume 34, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0254-3486
  • E-ISSN: 2222-4173
USD

 

Abstract

In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het 'n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as 'n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges) bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandriё toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geёwenaar is.

In Ancient Egypt mummification was associated with extensive organ resection, but the brain was removed through a hole cut in the ethnocide bone. It was thus not observed as an organ. Greek writers of the 6th and 5th centuries BC originally said the brain was the seat of intelligence, the organ of sensory perception and partially the origin of sperm. The substance pneuma, originating from fresh air, played an essential role in brain function. Hippocrates initially described the brain as a double organ, covered by meninges and responsible for perception. Contemporaries like Plato, Aristotle and Diocles confirmed the findings though the latter two considered the heart to be the centre of intelligence. During the late 4th century BC, with the onset of the Hellenistic era of medicine, dissection of the human body was temporarily allowed at the medical school of Alexandria, and this led to a remarkable advance in the understanding of human anatomy and physiology under Herophilus and Erasistratus. Their excellent descriptions of the structure and function of the brain was only matched and surpassed by Galen in the 2nd century AD.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aknat/34/1/EJC179666
2015-01-01
2019-08-22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error