oa Annals of the Natal Museum - Trichomyia species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from southern Africa and New Zealand, with a discussion of their affinities and of the concept of monophyly in southern hemisphere biogeography

Volume 24, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0304-0798



Two southern African species of Trichomyia Curtis are descriptionbed in which the male has a sharp long hook on the upper side of the ninth tergite, an apomorphic structure otherwise known only from species in southern South America and southern Australia, and a new subgenus Gondwanotrichomyia is proposed for this group. A second New Zealand species is also descriptionbed which, like the first, has no sharp long hook and whose affinities are unknown. After discussing the genealogical relationships of the African species it is concluded that they cannot be precisely placed, but that their discovery has the effect of transforming an apparent A-S distribution into a Gondwanian distribution. It is pointed out that because in the southern hemisphere many existing species and higher level taxa are still unknown, groups descriptionbed as monophyletic may often be polyphyletic or paraphyletic in reality, and that this defect is as serious as if it had resulted from a failure to recognise affinities. Clades that possibly involve undetected polyphyly or paraphyly resulting from a lack of thorough collecting are defined as metaphyletic, and the consequences of metaphyly are discussed.

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