oa Botswana Institute of Administration & Commerce Journal - Data-information-knowledge hierarchy: which way?

Volume 2, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1729-1070



There does not seem to be a consensus on the relationship between data, information and knowledge. Different models for capturing the relationship have been proposed varying from conventional, recursive to reverse. Considering this gap in the existing knowledge, this paper proposes that data, information and knowledge are related in a concentric manner with information as a subset of knowledge, and data as a subset of information.

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